Rapid economic growth in China has been accompanied by ever-increasing consumption, waste, and ecological destruction. Green GDP accounting is an important component of green accounting. It includes both resource depletion costs (affecting resources such as soil, minerals, water, forests, grasslands, and fisheries) and costs arising from environmental degradation (costs produced by environmental pollution and ecological damage) to determine the impact of economic development on the environment. Green GDP accounting guarantees sustainable development by emphasizing the integration of various economic, environmental, and social considerations, and the data that measure them. The process used to create the Green GDP Report involves diverse fields of study and research such as economics, statistics, accounting, resource management, ecology, and environmentalism. Green GDP accounting captures short-term trends as well as long-term processes provides a multifaceted, quantitative description of economic, societal and environmental development in a certain period.
The total Chinese population was 1.2658 billion in the Fifth Census in 2000. Since the ?reform and open door? initiative began in 1978, the proportion of the total Chinese population Chinese living in urban areas was just 17.92%. Factors including the integration of the rural labor force due to industrialization and urbanization as well as the control of population growth due to family planning not only result in a yearly decrease in the proportion of the rural population, but also bring about a decrease in the rural population. The population birth sex ratio refers to the quantity of corresponding male babies for every 100 newborn female babies. The birth sex ratio of China has risen rapidly since the mid-1980s, in accordance with the strict execution of the family planning policy.
This chapter looks at the rural economy against the background of national economic and social development. The author analyses the impacts and effects of the rural sector on the national economy in terms of production, investment, consumption and urbanisation. In 2006, the agriculture sector achieved an added value of RMB 2.4700 trillion, an increase of 5 percent over the previous year at comparable prices, and a fall of 0.2 percentage points. Rural fixed assets investment maintained rapid growth during the Tenth Five-Year Plan, reaching RMB 1.35189 trillion in 2005, an increase of 101.9 percent in comparison with the RMB 669.59 billion figure for 2000. The income gap between China's urban and rural areas is wide, and has been expanding since the 1990s. In 2006, rural per capita net income was RMB 3,587, while urban per capita disposable income was RMB 11,759 showing the widening of the income gap.
At the end of May 2007, Taihu Lake, an area known as the "land of plenty," experienced an extraordinarily large blue-green algae bloom. This incident focused attention on the alarming fact that rivers and lakes have become dangerously polluted. The Taihu Lake algae bloom touched off rounds of questioning about the "Southern Jiangsu Model" that has guided economic development in the area. The government adopted stringent protective measures and began experimenting with new protective methods in order to combat pollution in the Taihu Lake basin. Wuxi City is now preparing to establish an Environmental Supervisory Bureau, which will be equipped with improved facilities to supervise and monitor all of the major waterways. The construction of water quality monitoring systems at each water intake area is also under way.
The public's attitudes towards consumption, especially those of younger generations, determine the health and sustainability of China's future development. China Youth Daily presented the results of its research on young people on their attitudes towards sustainable development. According to the survey, when asked &t;what wish do you want to realize most&t; 38% of the respondents long for a big house, 21% to travel abroad, and 12% for private cars. The wide-spread trend of consumerism has squeezed out the concept of &t;sustainable consumption&t;. An obstacle to sustainable consumption is that the public is worried about the possible lowering of their present living standards. According to the survey, 58.8% of the public expect the government to set the example, and 24% consider that business enterprises should be the model of sustainable consumption. The wide participation of the public is the principal strategy for China to cope with the challenge of climate change.
According to statistics from the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, national private businesses maintained steady and rapid development in 2006. Private businesses, the number of private businessmen, employees, and the total registered capital of private businesses all experienced large growth. The data of the fifth questionnaire on national private business presents the aims and requirements of the private business sector in regards to economic interests, social prestige, and political status. As a fringe benefit community that once had an unclear status in Chinas political arena, the private business sector values public opinion and its reputation in society. The private business sector participates in political and social life in order to express its aims and requirements through legitimate channels, which is advantageous not only in the improvement of the development environment for the private sector, but also in the advancement of governmental scientific policy-making and administration according to law.
Chinas agricultural production prices rose by 18.5% in 2007. Influenced by this, CPI rose by 4.8% and food prices rose by 12.3%. The increase in agricultural product prices greatly increased farmers incomes. It is worth noting that the continued rapid increase of agricultural product prices will certainly result in an increase in labour costs and production costs in industries which use agricultural products as raw materials, thus increasing the risk of structural price increases leading to noticeable inflation. Allowing for the interests of both producers and consumers, agricultural product prices must be set within an appropriate range. Excessive increases in agricultural product prices will be bad for both consumers and producers. Establishing a long-term mechanism for increasing agricultural output and farmers incomes is rooted in intensified reform in rural areas to promote agriculture and rural economy. This chapter discusses several issues that are unavoidable as part of this intensified reform.
The Chinese economy has maintained rapid growth exceeding 10% annually since 2003. Based on economic trends in the first three quarters of 2007, it is predicted that the annual economic growth figure will approach or exceed 11.5% in 2007. Driven by rapid economic growth, gross tax revenue has experienced accelerated growth with a rate approaching or equalling 20% for several consecutive years. Gross tax revenue increased by 21.9% in 2006; gross tax revenue for the JanuaryJune 2007 period reached a record of 29%. The growth rate of tax revenue should preferably not be excessively high on the basis of economic growth. The current tax burden should be relieved via tax reform, the formulation and adjustment of policies to actually relieve the tax burden of enterprises, households, and individuals, and due consideration to ensure that tax revenue keeps pace with economic growth and is in harmony with society and the environment.
The Labor Contract Law of the Peoples Republic of China was promulgated at the 28th session of the Standing Committee of the tenth National Peoples Congress on June 29, 2007 and was put into effect on January 1, 2008. The reasons behind unharmonious labor relations vary. First, legal written labor contracts are rarely signed, making it impossible for employees to effectively protect their legitimate rights and interests during labor disputes. Second, more than 60% of signed labor contracts were short-term contracts, rarely lasting more than a year. Thirdly, employers often use staffing agencies. Fourth, government labor supervision teams cannot meet demands. The formulation of the Labor Contract Law was necessary to solve the above problems and build harmonious labor relations. The Labor Contract Law also outlines provisions for any penalties incurred by employees which cannot exceed the expense of training provided by the employer.