As China enters the second decade of the 21st century, it faces tremendous challenges and crisis. How did China arrive at this point of crisis? How do we understand the nature of the challenges? More than any existing study of reform-era China, this volume offers a theoretical discussion of the cultural and social roots of the reform. It does so for the purpose of further exploring whether or not it is possible to imagine alternatives. Contributors to this second volume of “Culture and Social Transformations in Reform Era China” address these questions by exploring some of the most contentiously debated topics including liberalism, human rights, rule of law, the state, capitalism, and socialism.