This chapter offers seven perspectives, and a conclusion, on what is, arguably, the ‘thorniest’ issue in contemporary EU-China relations: the human rights question. The study examines a number of fundamental ambiguities in Sino-European relations, and points to the legacies of past civilisational encounters, in as far as they continue to have an impact on current EU-China interaction (‘dualities’, ‘encounters’). The chapter then briefly discusses how the EU-China dialogue can be conceptualised from the point of view of international relations theory and discourse in China and Europe (‘embeddings’, ‘discourses’). The essay proceeds to an analysis of the role of ideas, identity-politics and perceptions in EU-China human rights discussions and examines how EU China foreign policy can be understood to be constructed around some key elements and frameworks (‘identities’, ‘pathways’). The chapter closes by emphasising the roles of intellectual exchange and knowledge-based co-operation and by offering a brief closing assessment of the likely future course of EU-China debates over human rights (‘connectivities’, ‘appraisals’).
This section offers a critical overview of the position, and meaning, of human rights in the context of EU-Asia relations. The chapter adopts a social-constructivist perspective on the European Union's human rights promotion activities across Asia, emphasising the role of values and identities, norms and educational interaction in EU-Asia foreign policy interaction and implementation. The author argues that the majority of EU-Asia debates on the issue of human rights shows evidence of both the enabling and the inhibitory potential of the issue for East-West dialogue. This is borne out in the short case studies in this chapter, which evaluate the EU’s Asia Policies towards Burma (Myanmar), the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of Indonesia, in terms of the potential and the challenges reflected in their human rights content. The chapter closes with a call for a more coherent, lateral and holistic integration of human rights issues into EU-Asia relations.
Staying with the themes of people-to-people contact and educational exchange, the last chapter in this collection argues that there is an important, two-fold, learning-dimension in EU-Asia relations: partners in East and West learn both from, and with one another. Against this background, this chapter offers an exploration of the roles of learning and exchange, and of cultural and academic interaction, within wider EU-Asia cooperation. The author examines, in particular, the relevant EU strategies in regard to Higher Education, and their potential for the formulation and implementation of EU foreign policies towards Asia. This section also critically assesses the educational content, and practical relevance, of many of the Union’s Asia Strategies, in term of academic EU-Asia collaboration and research. It further examines issues such as cultural presence, entrenched stereotypes and dissemination of values in the EU-Asia relationship. The chapter includes a number of shorter case studies, which focus on the dynamic, inter-disciplinary and expanding, subject-area of European Studies in Asia.
This volume represents the first, in-depth, inter-disciplinary, analysis of the past, present and future of the European Union’s relations with countries, non-state actors and other partners across the Asia-Pacific region. The book is situated in the developing, interdisciplinary, discourse of EU foreign policy towards countries and regions across Asia, and it offers a research-led critique of the construction and the elements of the EU-Asia ‘political space’. Written by an international team of experts from both Asia and Europe, the volume investigates the historical and cultural background, as well as diverse representations and imaginations in regard to the Asia-Europe inter-continental dialogue. The book examines the varied patterns, policies and priorities of the contemporary political, economic and cultural relations linking the EU with its interlocutors in Asia. Moreover, this collection throws light on a selected number of issues pertinent to current EU-Asia interaction, such as human rights promotion, learning and educational exchange, and the role of the mass media in the construction of Asia-Europe relations. The twelve chapters in this book cover a wide scope of subjects, including the EU’s Relations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the summitry of the Asia-Europe Meetings (ASEM), EU foreign policy choices in Asia and EU contacts with Central Asia, Australia and New Zealand. This text is of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students, lecturers, the business community, decision-makers and practitioners in Politics, European Studies, Asia-Pacific Studies, International Relations, Law, Human Rights and Business Studies.
This volume brings together the best of contemporary critical analysis of EU-China relations, offered here by an international team of policy analysts, academics and practitioners. The fifteen chapters assembled in this book represent a wide-ranging investigation of the development and framework of EU-China relations and its wider geo-political context. This includes an examination of key areas of concern, such as human rights, economic cooperation, energy security, sports, maritime safety and media policy. Many aspects of EU-China relations covered in this title have, until now, not been available for systematic scrutiny by a wider public. Importantly, this collection presents an examination of the significance of China’s relations with selected global partners – such as the US, Russia, India and Central Asia – for the further evolution of Sino-EU interaction. It should be read by anyone interested in EU foreign policies, the future of China-EU strategic partnership, China’s place in the world, and the development of a multi-polar world order.