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Peter T. Dunlap


This paper is intended as a ‘practice’ in fostering the self-awareness of the Jungian community(ies) to stimulate what Andrew Samuels described as its ‘political energy’ – an energy that can be activated in intimate or larger group settings, which benefit from dynamic interactions and immediacy of affect. Such energy can also be generated remotely by appealing to the intellect and imagination. Here, I aim to activate political energy using what Joseph Henderson termed a ‘psychological attitude’ – that is, focusing on intervention and the potential for improvement. I invite us to consider what factors constrain and enable our political energy, with a view to understanding its nature more generally. This in turn will offer useful insights that we can integrate into our psychology.

T. M. Luhrmann, T. M. Luhrmann, Howard Nusbaum, T. M. Luhrmann, Howard Nusbaum and Ronald Thisted


A secular observer might assume that prayer practice affects those who pray by making the cognitive concepts about God more salient to their lives. Those who pray, however, often talk as if prayer practice – and in particular, kataphatic (imagination-based) prayer – changes something about their experience of their own minds. This study examined the effect of kataphatic prayer on mental imagery vividness, mental imagery use, visual attention and unusual sensory experience. Christians were randomly assigned to two groups: kataphatic prayer or Bible study. Both groups completed computerized mental imagery tasks and an interview before and after a one month period of practice. The results indicate that the prayer group experienced increased mental imagery vividness, increased use of mental imagery, increased attention to objects that were the focus of attention, and more unusual sensory experience, including unusual religious experience, although there were substantial individual differences. These findings suggest that prayer practice may be associated with changes in cognitive processing.

Zheng Ren, Rikki H. Sargent, James D. Griffith, Lea T. Adams, Erika Kline and Jeff Hughes


The topic of infantile amnesia, or often referred to as one’s earliest childhood memory, has been studied for more than 100 years. Recently, there have been increased efforts to examine cultural differences in earliest childhood memories. The present study recruited participants (N = 242) from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MT), referred to as Turkers, who were either from an individualist (United States) or collectivist (India) culture, and compared their earliest recollections. Turkers from India reported earliest recollections that were from a later age, had more social themes, had more unpleasant memories, had more specific memories, and took longer to complete the task compared to Turkers from the United States. These findings suggest that unique cultural differences may be associated with early memories, which may reflect cultural differences in the development of one’s self-concept.

Wolfgang Giegerich

In his 12th year Jung had a fantasy about God shitting upon Basel cathedral. With this initiatory image of unrelenting disenchantment, the boy Jung emerged not only into personal adulthood but also into the particular form of adulthood corresponding to post-enlightenment modernity, i.e. disenchantment. However, Jung attempted first to halt the inevitable progress of the fantasy and then to neurotically disown it by a petitio principii, thus effectively invalidating the full effect of the initiatory experience. This paper explores the way in which Jung's soul fixated at the point of disenchantment, so that this ‘disenchantment complex’ became the ground of his whole psychological project, instituting a split that was to become literalized in his two homes: ‘Küsnacht’ and ‘Bollingen’.

Claire White, Maya Marin and Daniel M.T. Fessler

Comparing mortuary rituals across 57 representative cultures extracted from the Human Relations Area Files, this paper demonstrates that kin of the deceased engage in behaviours to prepare the deceased for disposal that entail close and often prolonged contact with the contaminating corpse. At first glance, such practices are costly and lack obvious payoffs. Building on prior functionalist approaches, we present an explanation of corpse treatment that takes account of the unique adaptive challenges entailed by the death of a loved one. We propose that intimate contact with the corpse provides the bereaved with extensive veridical cues of death, thereby facilitating acceleration of a grieving process that serves to recategorize the deceased as no longer a relationship partner, opening the door to relationship replacement and a return to social functioning. The benefits of exposure to such cues are tempered by the costs of exposure to cues of disease risk, a balance that in part explains the relative rarity of highly invasive mortuary practices that exacerbate the latter factor. We conclude by discussing implications of our model for contemporary mortuary practices in the developed world.

Rodney T. Cunningham, A. Wade Boykin and Brenda A. Allen


In this study, 64 African-American and 64 White school children were exposed to two different short stories. One story was presented in a learning context with movement and music, infusing syncopated music and high levels of kinesthetic activity (hme context); while the other story was presented devoid of such factors (lme context). Further, half of the participants were presented stories with high movement content themes, embodying character and thematic content depicting high activity and kinesthetics (hmc); while the other participants were presented with stories embodying low movement content themes, depicting low levels of activity and movement expression (lmc). Performance was measured via recall of story information/encoding-inferring. Salient findings revealed the best performance emerged for African-American children when the hmc stories were presented under the hme contexts. In contrast, facilitating effects emerged for White children when the lmc stories were presented under the lme contexts. Other results are discussed in relation to previous findings. Implications for schooling practices are addressed, as are directions for future research.

Tracy Packiam Alloway, Robert Moulder, John C. Horton, Aaron Leedy, Lisa M. D. Archibald, Debora Burin, Irene Injoque-Ricle, Maria Chiara Passolunghi and Flávia Heloísa Dos Santos


To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to test different theoretical models of working memory in childhood based on a computerized assessment. We tested this across several countries: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Italy, and uk. The present study addressed the wider macro-cultural context and how this impacts working memory. We used two economic indices (gdp and ppp) to characterize the participating countries and ranked the countries based on the Global Index of Cognitive Skills and Educational Attainment. Children between 5 and 10 years completed the same set of short-term and working memory tests. There were two main findings. First, there was a similar pattern in verbal working memory across countries, which suggests that this skill may be relatively consistent across different cultural groups. In contrast, the pattern for visuo-spatial working memory was different across countries, which may explained by cultural differences and educational rankings of the countries. The second main finding was that both a domain-general model (3-factor) and a domain-specific model (4-factor) provided a reasonably good fit with the data, there was the high relationship between the verbal and visuo-spatial working memory constructs across the countries in the latter model. Thus, it may be a more parsimonious choice to rely on a three-factor model. The data also suggest culture-similar patterns in a computerized assessment of working memory.