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Austro-Marxism: The Ideology of Unity

Austro-Marxist Theory and Strategy. Volume 1


Edited by Mark E. Blum and William T. Smaldone

This volume offers the essential theoretical thought of the Austro-Marxist thinkers Otto Bauer, Max Adler, Karl Renner, Friedrich Adler, Rudolf Hilferding, and Otto Neurath over the span of their Austrian Social-Democratic careers, from the decades before World War I until the mid-1930s. Austro-Marxist theoretical perspectives were conceived as social scientific tools for the issues that faced the development of socialism in their time. The relevance of their thought for the contemporary world inheres in this understanding.

T. N. Duchene and L. M. Jackson


This study examined the effectiveness of persuasive messages intended to encourage people to eat more plant foods and fewer nonhuman animal foods. One hundred twelve participants reported their eating habits and read an article that emphasized health or ethical implications of food choices as well as a brochure that used autonomy promoting or controlling motivational framing to encourage eating plant foods. They then indicated their future eating intentions. Across conditions, participants reported the intention to eat more plant foods following the manipulations compared to their current eating habits. In addition, people who perceived the article as promoting greater choice in eating habits reported an intention to decrease their consumption of meat and increase their consumption of higher protein plant foods. These findings can assist animal rights or welfare advocates, health-care practitioners, and educators in encouraging people to eat more plant foods and fewer animal foods.

Mary T. Phillips


Historically, treatment for pain relief has varied according to the social status of the sufferer. A similar tendency to make arbitrary distinctions affecting pain relief was found in an ethnographic study of animal research laboratories. The administration of pain-relieving drugs for animals in laboratories differed from standard practice for humans and, perhaps, for companion animals. Although anesthesia was used routinely for surgical procedures, its administration was sometimes haphazard. Analgesics, however, were rarely used. Most researchers had never thought about using analgesics and did not consider the subject worthy of serious attention. Scientists interviewed for this study agreed readily that animals are capable offeeling pain, but such assertions were muted by an overriding view of lab animals as creatures existing solely for the purposes of research. As a result, it was the exceptional scientist who was able to focus on anything about the animal's subjective experience that might lie outside the boundaries of the research protocol.

Companion Animal Attachment and Guardian Behaviors

A Survey of South African Dog Guardians

K. van der Merwe, T.P. More and T. Kotzé

Dogs are part of 29% of all South African households. Unfortunately, very little is known about the relationship between South African dog guardians and their canine companions. This study focuses on this relationship, with a specific focus on South African dog guardians’ attachment to their canine companions and the guardians’ resultant dog care behaviors. Two hundred self-completion questionnaires were distributed to adult dog guardians. The findings indicated that different care behaviors (essential, standard, enriched, and luxury) are positively related to companion animal attachment. These results suggest that dog guardians will provide basic types of care regardless of their levels of attachment to their canine companions. However, dog guardians with higher levels of attachment are more likely to provide their dogs with forms of enriched and luxury care.

Paul W.C. Wong, Rose W.M. Yu, Tim M.H. Li, Steven L.H. Lai, Henry Y.H. Ng and William T.W. Fan


This is an evaluation study of a pilot multicomponent program with animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for socially withdrawn youth with or without mental health problems in Hong Kong. There were fifty-six participants. Decreased level of social anxiety, and increased levels of perceived employability and self-esteem across two withdrawn groups were observed. When comparing those who did and did not receive the AAT component(s), however, AAT did not seem to have additional impacts on outcomes. The qualitative data collected through interviews with ten participants reflected that the AAT component was attractive because the nonhuman animals made them feel respected and loved. This pilot study showed that a multicomponent program with a case management model correlated with increased levels of self-esteem and perceived employability, and a decreased level of social interaction anxiety. In addition, using nonhuman animals in a social service setting appears to be a good strategy to engage difficult-to-engage young people.

Capturing Cruelty

A Content Analysis of Companion Animal Cruelty in the News Media

Shannon T. Grugan


The news media has long been identified as one of the primary sources for factual crime information for the general public, but not much is known about media coverage of cruelty against nonhuman animals, specifically. This study is a content analysis of media-presented themes in 240 print news articles that reported incidents of cruelty against companion animals in the United States in 2013. Seven thematic presentations of cruelty are identified and include: neutrality, condemnation, sympathy for the animal, drama, advocacy, humor, and sympathy for the offender. These themes are not mutually exclusive, with many articles including aspects of more than one theme. Themes are discussed in detail in regard to expanding the understanding of how specific forms of crime are presented by the news media based in news-making criminology.

Mary A. Koncel and Allen T. Rutberg


With almost 50,000 wild horses in holding facilities and declining adoption rates, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management’s wild horse adoption program is in crisis. To improve our understanding of Bureau of Land Management wild horse adopters, we conducted three in-depth interviews with 52 adopters in Colorado and Texas, spaced over their first year of adoption. Questions sought information on the adopters, their adopted horses, and their adoption experiences. The participants who completed all three interviews were uniformly satisfied with their adoptions. We argue that three factors inherent to wild horse culture in these states supported adopter satisfaction: adopters’ previous knowledge about horses, a western North American tradition that values wild horses, and participation in wild horse organizations. A lack of this culture in other regions may explain why they are less welcoming to wild horses and have lower rates of adoptions.

Germana Salamano, Antonio Cuccurese, Antonio Poeta, Enrico Santella, Paola Sechi, Valentina Cambiotti and Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga


Current technical-scientific advances allow a reappraisal of some practices used during religious slaughter without compromising its deep and essential meaning, through to the identification of techniques that limit the nonhuman animal vigilance without causing any lesion that may impair its integrity. All this in respect of religious principles of the Jewish and Muslim community and in respect of animal welfare, minimizing as much as possible the risk of causing useless suffering to the animals. A demonstrative slaughter was performed in a slaughterhouse of the Modena province (Italy): ritual incision of the neck vessels was preceded by stunning to explore the feasibility that lessening animal suffering could conform to religious prescriptions, as it does in other countries. Two alternative methods to classical ritual slaughter without prior stunning were illustrated in order to limit animal suffering during killing and comply with Islamic ritual requirements.

Solange E. Badano, Steven J. Burgermeister, Sidney Henne, Sean T. Murphy and Benjamin M. Cole


Using the quasi-experimental setting of the Michael Vick dogfighting case, the researchers employed rich interview content to explore the question, “When a critical event occurs in the animal advocacy field, what motivates advocacy groups to respond?” The investigation reveals that what was thought to be one critical event was in actuality three unique yet interrelated critical events—(1) the revelation of the transgressions; (2) the punishment of the perpetrator; and (3) the decision about whether to ally with the perpetrator in advocacy. The study shows that legitimacy concerns, occasionally paired with reflections on organizational identity, influenced the decision-making of advocacy organizations across all three critical events, as each held the potential either to legitimize or to delegitimize the advocacy organizations and/or the perpetrator (i.e., Vick).

Clare M. Browne, Nicola J. Starkey, T. Mary Foster and James S. McEwan

There is a wealth of popular literature available on dog behavior and training; sourcing reliable and trustworthy advice is important to achieving successful training. The aim of this study was to select five best-selling (at that time) dog training books, and review their general content and references to basic learning theory and human communicative cues. An Internet search was performed on three online bookstores’ websites for “best selling” “dog training” books. The books were by Millan and Peltier (2006), Fennell (2002), Stilwell (2005), Pryor (1999), and Monks of New Skete (2002). The results showed marked differences across all books, including inconsistencies in the depth of information provided, and some starkly contrasting training methods were advocated. Overall, these books were not all considered to function as instructional manuals. The persistent popularity of these books suggests that they have likely contributed appreciably to the type of information accessed by dog guardians.