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Edited by S.T. van Bemmelen, E. Touwen-Bouwsma and A. Niehof

This volume is the product of an international workshop on Women and Mediation, organized in Leiden in 1988 by the Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (KITLV) and the Werkgroep Indonesische Vrouwenstudies (WIVS), a Dutch interdisciplinary study group on Indonesian women. The book contains a selection of fourteen contributions—sociological, anthropological, and historical—ranging geographically ‘from Sabang to Merauke’ from the Toba Batak (North Sumatra) to the Dani (Irian Jaya). Loosely centred around the concept of mediation, many of the articles include new data derived from archival research and fieldwork.
One cluster of articles concentrates on theoretical questions concerning the concept of mediation. Another cluster deals with brokerage in the economic and social fields. A third cluster focuses on mediation in the cultural domain, which many extend to mediation between different ‘cultures’(elite-agrarian, Western-Indonesian) or between the human and the suprahuman world, between macrocosm and microcosm.
Mediation by women has been overlooked not only in the social sciences in general but also in the field of women studies in particular. The present volume explores the theme of mediation by women in general, and in Indonesia in particular.

S.T. Ker


The purpose of this paper is to project the demand for labour in various sectors of the Singapore economy to 1985. The supply of labour will also be forecast and compared with labour demand. A labour demand equation will be specified and tested by the data of the period 1960-1974. Part I will discuss the specification of the model and data collection. Part II reports the regression results and Part III provides a projection based on average growth rate of variables in the labour demand equation. The final part compares the projected labour demand and labour supply for the period 1975-1985. Observations will be derived and implications discussed in the same section.

Christen T. Jonassen


The possible role of ethical systems in accounting for the wide economic and social gap betweeri developed and underdeveloped countries is examined in the light of the Weberian thesis on the relationship between the Protestant Ethic, capitalism and economic development. Materials from various cultures seem to support Weber, but suggest that the crucial factor in economic development is not necessarily THE PROTESTANT ETHIC, but any ethical system which produces the following results: rational attitudes toward experiences, personal responsibility, a disciplined work force, and worldly asceticism. An ethic which encourages underconsumption and deferred gratification and which creates social motivations and legitimization for worldly work and economic enterprise seems to facilitate economic development in the takeoff period.

Ricardo T. José


The subject of War and Memory in the Philippines remains a sensitive topic in the Philippines today. Many controversial issues about the Second World War remain subjects of debate, among them collaboration with the Japanese; Japanese war responsibility; American responsibility for the failed defense of the Philippines, and others. In one sense, the war in the Philippines has left an ambiguous legacy which leads to conflicting war memories and commemorations, particularly in the light of present conditions and evolving relationships with the other countries involved.

Victor T. King