William Louis Stern
William C. Dickison
The first description of the wood of the monotypic Madagascan genus Diegodendron is provided. The xylem of D. humbertii is characterised by short , solitary vessel elements with alternate lateral wall pitting and simple perforation plates, imperforate tracheary elements of the libriform fibre type, nearly all biseriate, imperfectly storied, homogeneous rays composed of procumbent cells only, and diffuse and diffuse-in-aggregates axial parenchyma. The specialised wood anatomy of Diegodendron supports a close alliance with both Sphaerosepalaceae and Malvales.
William C. Dickison
Silica grains are common in the woods of New Caledonian species of Hibbertia. The grains are generally restricted to the ray parenchyma cells with a single grain per ray cello Grain size, shape, and surface texture are quite variable. The systematic significance of silica grains in Hibbertia cannot be assessed until additional species are examined. This is the first documented report of silica grains occurring in woods of the Dilleniaceae.
William C. Dickison and Kristen D. Phend
Woods of over 40 species representing nine genera of Styracaceae were studied. Features present in most taxa include growth rings, diffuse porosity, combinations of both solitaries and pore multiples, exclusively scalariform perforation plates, opposite to alternate intervessel pitting, imperforate tracheary elements with indistinctly bordered pits, both uniseriate and multiseriate heterocellular rays, and axial parenchyma distributed as a combination of diffuse, diffuse-in-aggregates, and scanty. Prismatic crystals occur in species of the genera Bruinsmia, Halesia, and Styrax, and silica is present in a few Neotropical species of Styrax. The characteristic solitary pore distribution and high scalariform perforation plate bar number of Huodendron are of potential evolutionary significance. The xylem of Lissocarpa differs from the Styracaceae in possessing more highly evolved vessel elements with both simple and scalariform perforations and prominently banded axial parenchyma. The occurrence of simple perforation plates in the wider, earlywood vessel elements, along with an increased pore frequency and decreased vessel element length, in Styrax platanifolius and S. texanus is documented. Both species inhabit seasonally dry habitats of the southwestern United States, thus supporting similar specialisations observed in other plants growing in xerophytic conditions. The apparent variation in perforation plate condition within different geographic varieties of S. officinalis is discussed. Significant correlations of wood anatomical characters and latitude of provenance are present among species of Styracaceae. Increasing latitude is strongly correlated with increased pore and multiseriate ray frequency, and decreased vessel element length and wall thickness. Increasing latitude is less strongly correlated with an occurrence of decreased pore diameter, increased bar number per perforation plate, increased fibre-tracheid and intervessel pit diameter, and increased frequency of uniseriate rays. Weak correlations are also evident between increasing latitude and shorter ray height and narrower, shorter, and thinner-walled fibre-tracheids.