Miaofeng Fudeng was a most respected monk who had incomparable influence in the late Ming samgha, except a few leading masters like Hanshan Deqing, Zibo Zhenke, and Yunqi Zhuhong. However, he has been unduly ignored by later generations. This paper reconstructs his life by piecing together fragmentary information and, in connection with his religious and non-religious life, explores how he obtained and maintained his extraordinary influence. In particular, two features stood out in his life. First, Fudeng received huge favors repeatedly from the inner court but remained rooted deeply in local society. Second, Fudeng was extremely active in the religious and social field but clearly shunned from politics. Consequently, Fudeng maximized his influence and avoided being entrapped in court strife, which proved disastrous to both Deqing and Zhenke. Fudeng represented a stable constructive force in the contemporary Buddhist community, and his formidable achievements enriches our understanding of the samgha-state relationship.
This essay investigates the “Sinicization of Christianity” from an academic standpoint. The goal of this essay is: The objective and rational discussion on how Christianity could be able to meld into Chinese culture, the Chinese nation, and in particular, contemporary Chinese society. The investigation is presented in three parts: a comparison between the histories of Christianity in China and Korea, a study of the ecological situation of religions in contemporary China, and, finally, new developments in international research on inter-religious dialogue. The article concludes that social practice should be the main criterion for testing religious faith. Furthermore, based on China’s current conditions, the best course for the Sinicization of Christianity is its achieving positive and important contributions to the continued reform and opening-up of Chinese society as well as to its development and progress.
This paper aims to discuss the relationship between the spreading of Catholicism and the changes of the Chinese lineage marriage network. By analysing the marriage conditions of the Feng lineage of the Shuangfeng Village, who live in the Middle of the Lian Brook in Fu’an county located in the east of Fujian Province, the author points out that when Catholicism gradually grew rooted in some of the rural lineages in the 18th century, it consequently brought a new comparatively stable lineage marriage network built on Catholic faith in an area. This kind of lineage marriage pattern built on Catholic belief at least challenged the relationship between the intermarriage circle and the market area in certain aspects. Thus, it’s shown that the influences of the social factors like religion on China’s lineage marriage network construction should not be underestimated.