Author: Abrahams
Editor-in-Chief: Abraham Winitzer
The Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions (JANER) focuses on the religions of the Ancient Near East: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Anatolia, as well as adjacent areas under their cultural influence, from prehistory through the beginning of the common era. JANER defines Ancient Near Eastern civilization broadly as including not only the Biblical, Hellenistic and Roman world but also the impact of Near Eastern religions on the western Mediterranean. JANER is the only peer-refereed journal specifically and exclusively addressing this range of topics, and is intended to provide an international scholarly forum for studies on all aspects of ancient religions. JANER welcomes submissions that introduce new evidence, revise old understandings, and advance debates on ancient Near Eastern ideas and practices of the otherworldly.

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Its Organizational Framework and Generative and Paradigmatic Characteristics
In Early Mesopotamian Divination Literature: Its Organizational Framework and Generative and Paradigmatic Characteristics, Abraham Winitzer provides a detailed study of the Akkadian Old Babylonian (ca. 2000-1600 BC) omen collections stemming from extispicy, the most significant Mesopotamian divination technique for most of that civilization’s history. Paying close attention to these texts’ organizational structure, Winitzer details the mechanics responsible for their origins and development, and highlights key characteristics of a conceptual framework that helped reconfigure Mesopotamian divination into a literature in line with significant, new forms of literary expression from the same time. This literature, Winitzer concludes, represents an early form of scientific reasoning that began to appreciate the centrality of texts and textual interpretation in this civilization’s production, organization, and conception of knowledge.
Author: Abraham Gross
The Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. Those surviving the ordeals they encountered tried to rebuild their personal lives and to reconstruct Sefardic religious and cultural traditions in North Africa and in the East.
This volume tries to depict the world of one of the refugees who formed part of the cultural bridge between Spain and the new havens of the Sefardim.
Rabbi Abraham Saba of Zamora was a preacher, cabbalist, and biblical exegete. He attempted to settle in Portugal, suffered the persecutions instigated by the Crown with his coreligionists and was finally expelled to North Africa. His literary works and thought are put in the proper cultural context and are analyzed against the background of historical reality.
Major Problems and Minor Issues
Author: Abraham Malamat
The history of Israel of the Bible remains one of the most hotly contested issues in scholarship of the Hebrew Bible today. One of the clearest voices in the debate is that of Abraham Malamat. In the pages Malamat distills years of writing on the history of Israel from its beginnings up to the destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem (586 B.C.E.). Malamat divides his study into the following sections: (1) The Dawn of Israel; (2) Forming a Nation; (3) The Rise of the Davidic Dynasty; (4) Twilight of Judah and the Destruction of the First Temple; and (5) Historical Episodes in the Former Prophets and the Prophetical Books. All those interested in the emergence of Israel as a people and the rise of the story of Israel will find this an essential volume.

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Author: Abraham Miller


Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.
Author: Abraham Tal
Given the many excellent editions of Samaritan writings (e.g. The Pentateuch) in recent years, the need was felt for a comprehensive dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic. Abraham Tal’s Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic, the first dictionary of its kind, contains the vocabulary of the Aramaic dialect in which the Samaritans composed their texts, from the beginning of their literature in the fourth century C.E. when Aramaic was the community’s vernacular, until the end of the use of Aramaic in the eleventh century, when it was replaced by Arabic.
Over a period of more than fifteen years the author has exhaustively collected material form the Samaritans’ translations of the Pentateuch, their liturgy, literary compositions, chronicles, etc., as presented in the growing corpus of scholarly editions. Comparative material from adjacent Palestinian Aramaic dialects is adduced where functional. With ample linguistic and textual notes.
Particularly important for the study of Aramaic Jewish and Christian sources composed during the Roman and Byzantine periods in the Land of Israel, and an absolute must for Biblical Scholars.
Entries in Samaritan-Aramaic (Hebrew block script); English translations; Hebrew translations; bibliographical abbreviations, etc., in English.
Author: Abraham Malamat
The town of Mari is situated on the Euphrates, near the eastern Syrian border. This study compares the 18th century BC Old Babylonian texts from Mari with the Hebrew Scriptures and the early history of Israel. Given the West Semitic or Amorite character of both Mari and the Bible, this comparison may rightly be called imperative.
Mari and the Bible contains 22 chapters of essays, both old and new, conveniently assembled here and divided into three sections: 1) Mari and the West, dealing with Mari documents pertaining to Syria and Palestine, as well as the Mediterranean region. 2) Prophecy, dealing with Mari prophetical texts, particularly those recently published as compared to Biblical prophecy. 3) Customs and Society, also including topics such as female royal correspondence, the royal harem, the epithet 'Great King' and king-lists involving the cult of the dead.
Author: Abraham Malamat
The book holds 26 chapters encompassing the history of Israel from its very beginnings up to the destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem (586 BC). The successive parts are (1) The Dawn of Israel, dealing with the Israelite proto-history, Mari and early Israel as well as the tribal societies and genealogies. (2) Forming a Nation, The Exodus and Conquest of Canaan, the period of the Judges and the charismatic nature of the Judges, the Danite migration. (3) The Rise of the Davidic Dynasty, a political view of the kingdom of David and Solomon, the diplomatic, international marriages of the latter, organs of statecraft in the Israelite monarchy. (4) King Amon and Josiah and their final fate, twilight of Judah and the destruction of Jerusalem. (5) This part is dedicated to historical episodes in the Former Prophets and in the Prophetical Books. Several excursi follow.

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Reservations about Active Martyrdom in the Middle Ages
Author: Abraham Gross
This monograph discusses the disagreement within the Jewish community concerning the medieval practice of active martyrdom, including slaughter of children and suicide, from the 11th until the 16th centuries.
It covers the mainly implicit reservations about and objections in Jewish society to this practice. It is suggested that such opinions existed throughout the period when this practice was accepted in halakhic (legal) terms and by the most outstanding Jurists. It is argued that this was the case during the persecutions of the First Crusade in Germany and in the following centuries in the Ashkenazic cultural sphere. This is complemented by a survey and analysis of the situation in the Iberian peninsula during the 14th-15th centuries, when such phenomenon is detected during the persecutions in 1391 and during the so-called "expulsion" from Portugal in 1497. A series of appendices discuss a variety of related topics and all main texts discussed in the book in the original Hebrew.
While many scholars discussed the phenomenon of active martyrdom and described its status among medieval Jewry as positive and monolithic, this book proposes a different angle which reveals the ongoing objections of scholars and parts of Jewish society who opposed active martyrdom on legal as well as on emotional grounds until the eventual waning and disappearance of this practice. It is suggested that this actual change set the background for an explicit and total legal rejection of a tradition which lasted and was admired and hailed for more than 400 years.