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The Academy is a prestigious international institution for the study and teaching of public and private international law and related subjects. The work of the Hague Academy receives the support and recognition of the UN. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of The Hague Academy of International Law .

The Hague Academy Collected Courses / Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de La Haye are also available online.

The series published an average of six volumes per year over the last 5 years.
No further indices for Recueil des Cours volumes will be published.
L’article 103 de la Charte des Nations Unies, par R. Kolb, professeur à l’Université de genève
L’article 103 de la Charte des Nations Unies touche à la priorité, pour les membres de l’Organisation, des obligations en vertu de la Charte des
Nations Unies par rapport aux obligations découlant de tout autre accord. Cette disposition a constamment gagné en importance dans la pratique
internationale et nationale de ces dernières années. On pense évidemment à la concurrence entre les régimes de sanction des Nations Unies
par rapport aux obligations contenues dans des traités de droits de l’homme. A vrai dire, cette disposition pose toutefois déjà en elle-même
toute une série de questions et de problèmes d’interprétation. Que signifie avoir la primauté ? Quelles sont les obligations visées ? Qu’en est-il
d’obligations contenues dans des textes juridiquement liés à la Charte? Qu’en est-il d’obligations issues du droit international coutumier? Et
ainsi de suite. Le présent ouvrage cherche en tout premier lieu à donner des éléments d’exégèse de cette disposition importante et difficile du
point de vue juridique, dans les multiples directions dans lesquelles son champ d’application est susceptible de rayonner.

Le droit de la nationalité et le droit des organisations d’intégration régionales. Vers de nouveaux statuts de résidents? par B. Nascimbene, professeur à l’Université de Milan
Le paradigme des droits de l’homme et les processus d’intégration régionale peuvent être identifiés comme des facteurs cruciaux dans l’évolution de la notion de nationalité. Dans l’Union européenne, la création d’une citoyenneté de l’Union qui complète celle nationale de l’Etat membre sans la remplacer a représenté une étape d’importance capitale du processus d’intégration, dont les contours ont progressivement été définis par la Cour de justice. Cet institut, qualifié de statut fondamental des ressortissants des États membres, permet aux citoyens européens de recevoir le même traitement juridique indépendamment de leur nationalité. La comparaison avec d’autres processus d’intégration régionale, notamment en Amérique du Sud et en Afrique, suscite une réflexion sur l’évolution du statut de l’étranger et l’émergence de nouveaux statuts de résidents.
The Law of Global Governance by Eyal Benvenisti
The lectures argue that the decision-making processes within international organizations and other global governance bodies ought to be subjected to procedural and substantive legal constraints that are associated domestically with the requirements of the rule of law. They explain why law — international, regional, domestic, formal or soft — should restrain global actors in the same way that judicial oversight is applied to domestic administrative agencies. They outlines the emerging web of global norms designed to protect the rights and interests of all affected individuals, to enable public deliberation, and to promote the legitimacy of the global bodies. These norms are being shaped by a growing convergence of expectations of global institutions to ensure public participation and representation, impartiality and independence of decision-makers, and accountability of decisions. The author explores these mechanisms as well as the political and social forces that are shaping their development by analysing the emerging judicial practice concerning a variety of institutions, ranging from the UN Security Council and other formal organizations to informal and private standard-setting bodies.

La protection des personnes en cas de catastrophe par K. G. Park
Nous vivons dans un monde incertain : de nombreuses gens souffrent en ce moment même, dans tous les coins du monde, de catastrophes naturelles et industrielles, de pandémies, des conflits armés, des guerres civiles et de la dictature. Comment atténuer la douleur des victimes et qui peut le faire? L’auteur traite la question sous deux axes : les catastrophes en temps de paix et les catastrophes en temps de conflits armés et lors d’atrocités.
L’auteur examine divers efforts menés par la communauté internationale afin de protéger les victimes de catastrophes. Il aborde également la « justice transitionnelle » et la «responsabilité de protéger» auxquelles de nombreux chercheurs donnent leur attention au XXIe siècle. En outre, est étudié aussi le sort des habitants des petites îles submergées en raison du changement climatique. Ce cours permettra de mieux comprendre le résultat récent des travaux de la Commission du droit international.

Transnational Commercial Law and Conflict of Laws: Institutional Co-operation and Substantive Complementarity by Herbert Kronke
This Hague lecture takes issue with suggestions that transnational commercial law and its wide variety of instruments, including soft-law instruments, might be an alternative to classic administration of trans-border transactions and disputes by way of conflict-of-laws rules. Rather, the latter and the former complement each other. Moreover, the intergovernmental Organizations charged with developing and modernizing conflict-of-laws rules and substantive rules are co-operating with a view to enhancing the tools at the disposal of businesses and courts. The lecture identifies and explains current examples in the area of financial services, secured transactions, and contract law.

The Human Rights of Undocumented Migrants by Loretta Ortiz Ahlf
International human rights law has offered humankind various international instruments that guarantee every person the effective protection of his or her human rights. However, these rights have not been effectively guaranteed by States in the case of undocumented migrants because these people do not have legal status in the destination country. The first section of this work defines the concept of undocumented worker in order to differentiate him or her from a refugee, an asylee or a displaced person. Universal and regional human rights treaties, as well as international jurisprudence, are then analysed, centring attention on the human rights that are violated most frequently against undocumented workers, such as the right to non-discrimination, the right to residence and free movement, the right of access to justice, labour rights the right to freedom and the right to family reunification, among others.

Pan-Africanism and International Law by Abdulqawi A. Yusuf
Pan-Africanism offers a unique vantage point to study Africa’s encounters with international law : first, as a continent whose political entities were excluded from the scope of application of the Eurocentric version of international law that was applied among the self-styled club of “civilized nations” ; second, through the emergence of African States as subjects of international law willing to contribute to the reform and further development of the law as a universal interstate normative system; and third, as members of the OAU and the AU acting collectively to generate innovative principles and rules, which, though applicable only in the context of intra-African relations, either go beyond those existing at the universal level or complement them by broadening their scope. This study examines those encounters through the various stages in the evolution of Pan-Africanism from a diaspora-based movement, engaged in the struggle for the emancipation of the peoples of the continent, to groupings of independent States and intergovernmental organizations which continue to promote African unity and influence the development of international law to make it more reflective of diverse legal traditions and values.

Efficiency in Private International Law by Toshiyuki Kono
Private international law (PIL) problems have existed for centuries when people from various territories and religious and social groups engaged in mutual contacts. Some of the core issues of this discipline have been critically reviewed during the so-called conflicts revolution which took place during the twentieth century in the American academic literature and court practice. However it seems that not much discussion on methodologies of PIL has developed since then. This lecture, inspired by the Law and Economics approach, introduces the concept of efficiency into PIL, aiming to show new dimensions of traditionally important issues. First, this author challenges the traditional understanding that uniform law is always more desirable than PIL, and raises questions on the rationale and possibility of the unification of PIL. Second, territoriality has been understood to exclude PIL. This lecture clarifies why such understanding does not hold in the twenty-first century especially in the field of intellectual property, and argues that a one-sizefits-all model would not be appropriate in the context of cross-border insolvency
La société internationale à la recherche de son équilibre. Cours général de droit international public (2006), par Ch. Dominicé, professeur honoraire de l’Université de Genève, et de l’Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement
La méthode de la reconnaissance est-elle l’avenir du droit international privé ?, par P. Lagarde;

Democracy and International Law, by H. Charlesworth;
These lectures consider the way that international law defines and shapes ideas of democracy. This process is most obvious today in the context of post-conflict societies, but it also has a broader significance, affecting the whole fabric of international law. While there is an extensive literature on democracy in philosophy, political theory and international relations, there has been much less attention paid to the concept by international lawyers. The term is typically invoked as a self-evident good, and there has been little sustained analysis of the many meanings of democracy deployed in international law. The lectures argue that international lawyers have generally taken democracy to have a fixed form, associated with specific institutional practices and structures, and have been slow to recognize democratic forms outside these parameters. In other words, the discipline of international law has lost sight of why we might want democracy, assuming that it can be realized by a set of institutions.

L’exception d’ordre public et la régularité substantielle internationale de la loi étrangère par Pascal de Vareilles-Sommières
Si l’exception d’ordre public fait incontestablement partie des mécanismes les plus classiques du droit des conflits de lois, l’incertitude qu’on observe aujourd’hui encore sur sa place aussi bien que sur les conditions de son fonctionnement dans le raisonnement conflictualiste est le signe que sa véritable nature n’a pas été, pour lors, correctement élucidée. Le présent cours s’attache à démontrer qu’avec l’exception d’ordre public, le droit des conflits de lois accueille en son sein un mécanisme qui ressortit au droit et à la théorie de la régularité substantielle internationale des normes, et qui concerne plus particulièrement cette norme précise qu’est la loi étrangère, lorsque son application dans un Etat est envisagée dans un cas donné du fait de sa désignation par la règle de conflit. Il résulte de cette analyse une clarification du fonctionnement de l’exception d’ordre public, à la fois au plan des standards de l’ordre public à l’œuvre dans ce mécanisme (distinction par rapport à l’ordre public interne et aux lois de police) et au plan du contrôle de la conformité de la loi étrangère par rapport à ces standards (révélation d’une exception d’inopposabilité de la loi étrangère, allocation de l’effet positif habituellement imputé à l’exception, au mécanisme plus général de la vocation subsidiaire de la loi du for).

Significance of the History of the Law of Nations in Europe and East Asia by Masaharu Yanagihara
It was a commonly held view in the nineteenth century that international law was a concept developed only in Europe. This view has been widely criticized and now the idea is generally accepted that there are various types of “international law” in various periods and regions, even if “rudimentary” as seen from a contemporary viewpoint. After analysing the “reception” process of modern European international law in East Asia (China, Korea and Japan), this article focuses on the “reception” in Japan of two specific institutions, namely territory and international adjudication, both of which are particularly important concepts in modern European international law. The purpose of this article is not to put forward immediate and practical solutions to current issues, but to show the importance of historical investigations, which will contribute to tackling these important issues from various points of view in order to achieve a real breakthrough in our understanding.
La compétence universelle civile, par A. Bucher, professeur honoraire de l’Université de Genève:
La compétence universelle a préoccupé la communauté internationale surtout sous l’angle de la répression pénale. Le droit international n’a guère développé le soutien politique et l’arsenal juridique servant à la protection directe et individuelle des victimes de graves atteintes à leur dignité humaine. On a dit que celles-ci ne disposeraient pas d’un droit de réparation à faire valoir à l’encontre de l’Etat responsable. Ces temps ont changé. En sus de l’indemnisation, les victimes doivent avoir la garantie d’un accès effectif à la justice. C’est une obligation erga omnes à la charge et dans l’intérêt de tous les Etats. Ceux-ci doivent donc assurer qu’il existe un tribunal compétent tout au moins en dernier recours. Si les tribunaux ne peuvent être saisis selon les règles ordinaires, le principe de la compétence universelle oblige tout Etat à accepter l’accès des victimes de telles graves violations des droits de l’homme, quitte à se déclarer compétent à titre subsidiaire seulement s’il existe un for plus approprié et accessible ailleurs.

Limitations on Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration by G. Cordero-Moss, Professor at the University of Oslo:
International commercial contracts often contain a choice of law clause and an arbitration clause. The parties are often convinced that the choice of law clause in the contract excludes that any other country’s law is applicable to any aspect of their relationship; even more so when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Arbitration is, as known, based on the will of the parties, and the tribunal is supposed to follow the parties’ instructions. Hence, a contract with an arbitration clause apparently enhances the parties’ reliance on the choice of law they made in the contract and the disregard of any other laws.
Choice of law clauses are, however, not always capable of fully achieving the results desired by the parties. There are several limits to the effects of these clauses. These limits may depend on the scope of party autonomy, on overriding mandatory rules of other laws or on illegality in the place of performance.
The course intends to show that an arbitration clause does not necessarily prevent the applicability of rules belonging to a law different from the one chosen by the parties: some of these rules cannot be disregarded even by an international arbitral tribunal and, if they are, the award will be invalid or unenforceable.

Intellectual Property: Cross-Border Recognition of Rights and National Development by M. Sinjela, Professor at the University of Lusaka:
Intellectual property is defined as the creation of the human mind, which becomes valuable when reduced into a tangible form. Many view intellectual property as a monopoly. Western countries have used it over the centuries as a tool for wealth creation, while developing countries have thus far not embraced it fully and are unsure of its pivotal role in wealth creation and national development.
To demonstrate the benefits that could accrue to developing countries that embrace intellectual property, the lectures firstly provide a succinct understanding of the entire subject including patents, trademarks, copyright, geographic indication of origin and the protection of new plant varieties. This is intended to give an understanding of the subject that is otherwise little known particularly in developing countries.
The lectures proceed to inform the reader how developing countries that use the intellectual property system could derive maximum benefits from it, just like countries in the west have over the centuries. The lectures are intended to provide a clear understanding of the vital role that intellectual property plays in wealth creation and national development for countries that embrace and mainstream it in their decision-making process and national development agenda.

International Co-operation in Energy Affairs by R. Dolzer, Professor at the University of Bonn (Retired):
These lectures explore the legal framework of current international cooperation in the various fields of energy by international organisations, together with the incentives and the impediments for stronger international action. While the opportunities for cooperation are obviously broad, the concept of natural sovereignty over natural resources dominates the current realities. The study also includes recommendations for possible ways to strengthen the current weak ties of cooperation.
Le transport international aérien de passagers, par O. CACHARD.
Le transport international aérien de passagers est entré dans une nouvelle ère avec la mise en application de la Convention de Montréal. Malheureusement, ce progrès apparent du droit uniforme se heurte aux tendances récessives d’une renationalisation ou d’une régionalisation du droit. A cet égard, la jurisprudence européenne, qu’elle émane de la CJUE ou des juridictions des Etats membres, crée de nouvelles tensions. Aux questions classiques de conflit de lois et de conflit de juridictions, il faut ajouter les questions d’applicabilité des Conventions et les questions d’articulation entre la communauté internationale et les organisations régionales d’intégration économique.

Bioéthique et droit international privé, par M. AUDIT, professeur à l’Université Paris Ouest (Nanterre La Défense).
En matière de bioéthique, la coexistence de législations nationales souvent très différentes les unes des autres, associée aux facilités qu’offre la vie moderne tant en termes d’information sur les pratiques et les droits étrangers que de déplacement, est à l’origine de situations juridiques transnationales complexes. Pour bénéficier d’un traitement médical particulier, d’une technique de procréation spécifique ou d’un changement de sexe par exemple, des personnes vont ainsi se déplacer vers des pays où la législation locale leur offre ce que leur droit d’origine leur interdit souvent très fermement. Il en résulte des problèmes de conflit de lois et de reconnaissance de situations créées à l’étranger pour lesquels il appartient au droit international privé d’identifier des solutions. Ce sont ces problèmes et ces solutions qu’entend présenter ce cours.
The Academy is a prestigious international institution for the study and teaching of Public and Private International Law and related subjects. The work of the Hague Academy receives the support and recognition of the UN. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law.

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