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Brusil Miranda METOU, Le contrôle international des dérogations aux droits de l'homme and Eduardo SILVA ROMERO, Legal Fictions in the Language of International Arbitration.

Résumé: Le contrôle international des dérogations aux droits de l’homme:
La protection des droits de l’homme est une exigence de la société internationale contemporaine, et sa dérogation, une nécessité de survie de l’État, face à un danger public exceptionnel. Le contrôle international est la limite incontournable, pour éviter les abus. Il se décline en un ensemble de mesures, normatives et institutionnelles, prévues par les conventions internationales de protection des droits de l’homme. D’emblée, certains droits en raison de leur fondamentalité, sont indérogeables et la dérogation en elle-même est entourée de conditions strictes. Le contrôle est opéré par les organes internationaux, qui veillent à la proportionnalité et la régularité des mesures de dérogation. Ce contrôle vise également le respect par les Etats de leurs obligations internationales en matière des droits de l'homme. A l’issue, soit les mesures prises par l’État sont considérées comme justifiées, soit sa responsabilité est engagée. Malgré ses insuffisances, le contrôle est sans conteste, le défi permanent de l’effectivité de la protection internationale des droits de l’homme.

Summary of the Course “Legal Fictions in the Language of International Arbitration” by Eduardo Silva Romero:
The language of international arbitration is rarely analyzed through the prism of the notion of “legal fiction”. Legal fictions, however, are very often used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration. As a result, the goal of this Course is to shed new light on international arbitration by exploring it through the notion of legal fiction. Its main conclusions are these:
First, legal fictions are used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration to bolster it in its longstanding fight for survival. Arbitration, after all, has been and still is a fragile institution. In other words, legal fictions in the language of international arbitration have become efficient tools to counter the attacks sometimes directed against the institution of arbitration from both the outside (such as by public authorities) and from within (such as by the so-called “users” of arbitration). The legal fictions of “autonomy of the international arbitration agreement” and the “principle of Kompetenz-Kompetenz” are good illustrations of this phenomenon.
Second, some legal fictions are aimed at providing international arbitration with a necessary foundational theory. A foundational theory underlying international arbitration is necessary to ensure and enhance its legitimacy as a means for resolving international disputes. The theories of the “arbitral legal order”, the “fundamental right to arbitrate,” and the “assimilation of arbitrators and judges,” together with their logical corollaries, are very interesting examples of this category of legal fictions in the language of international arbitration.
Third, other legal fictions are specific legal rules aimed at ensuring the existence, autonomy, and validity of international arbitration. French arbitration law encompasses several legal fictions of this kind. The “autonomy of the international arbitration agreement,” the “principle of Kompetenz-Kompetenz,” the “principle of validity of the international arbitration agreement,” and the theory of the “extension of the international arbitration agreement to non-signatories” are important manifestations of this kind of legal fiction.
Lastly, the legal fiction as an intellectual tool is from time to time abused in the language of international arbitration. Some misunderstandings surrounding the “autonomy of the arbitration agreement” as well as some interpretations of investment treaties by investment arbitral tribunals demonstrate this point well.
Be all that as it may, the notion of legal fiction as used and relied upon in the language of international arbitration allows us to better understand, from a theoretical perspective, the nature of the Rule of Law.
Pieter Jean KUIJPER, Delegation and International Organizations; As Exemplified by the United Nations and the European Union
Based on a comparative approach, this course analyzes the diverging development of the delegation of powers, in particular legislative or regulatory powers, in the UN and the EU. It is based largely on the primary sources, documents and decisions of the organs of these organizations, including the relevant judicial decisions. After a brief discussion of some basic notions involved in delegation of powers, it makes a basic distinction between delegation of a constitutional nature and delegation of an administrative law nature. It continues with a preliminary chapter on delegation of powers in a limited number of national legal systems, as it is likely that these may have had some influence on delegation within international organizations, when these were first confronted with the problem of delegation. These national systems are characterized by a strong resistance against the delegation of truly legislative powers, but at the same time by the growing and unavoidable need for delegation in specialized domains of the modern administrative state, where certainly the legislature, but in many areas also the executive, lack the necessary knowledge.

Stephen C. McCAFFREY, The Evolution of the Law of International Watercourses.
Masahiko ASADA, International Law of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament
The Academy is an institution for the study and teaching of public and private international law and related subjects. Its purpose is to encourage a thorough and impartial examination of the problems arising from international relations in the field of law. The courses deal with the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, including legislation and case law.
All courses at the Academy are, in principle, published in the language in which they were delivered in the Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law.
This volume contains:Le cinquantième anniversaire de la Cour internationale de Justice, communication de S. Exc. M. BEDJAOUI, président de la Cour internationale de Justice, La Haye Droit international et souveraineté des Etats. Cours général de droit international public, par J.-A. CARRILLO-SALCEDO, professeur à l'Université de Séville, Facultative Choice of Law: The Procedural Status of Choice-of-Law Rules and Foreign Law by Th.M. DE BOER, Professor at the University of Amsterdam.
Carmen Tiburcio: The Current Practice of International Cooperation in Civil Matters

Ruiz De Santiago: Aspects juridiques des mouvements forcés de personnes
Le Droit International a accompagné depuis le début le phénomène migratoire aussi ancien que l’humanité. Ce sont surtout les mouvements migratoires forcés qui ont requis la création de divers instruments juridiques internationaux pour protéger efficacement la dignité des êtres humains. L’ONU a confié au Haut-Commissariat pour les réfugiés (HCR) le mandat de protéger les réfugiés. Ce mandat a été peu à peu élargi afin d’offrir cette protection à un nombre croissant de personnes qui en ont besoin.
El Derecho Internacional ha acompañado desde sus inicios el fenómeno migratorio, tan antiguo como la humanidad. Han sido sobre todo los movimientos migratorios forzados los que han requerido la creación de diversos instrumentos jurídicos internacionales para proteger eficaz y justamente la dignidad de los seres humanos. La ONU le ha dado al Alto Comisionado para Refugiados (HCR) el mandato de dar protección a los refugiados. Este mandato ha sido paulatinamente ampliado para ofrecer tal protección a un número cada vez más creciente de personas necesitadas de la misma.
Fabian Novak: The System of Reparations in the Jurisprudence of the Interamerican Court of Human Rights;
Georg Nolte: Treaties and their Practice, Symptoms of their Rise or Decline
Reflections on the Relevance of Public International Law to Private International Law Treaty Making Paul R. Beaumont
This lecture focuses on treaty interpretation, reservations, declarations, the relationship between international instruments and decision making methods in an international institution. It deals with these public international law issues from the perspective of a private international lawyer who has encountered them when negotiating several treaties at the Hague Conference on Private International Law (the revised Statute of the Conference, the Choice of Court Agreements Convention, and the Maintenance Convention and its Protocol).

Conflits de lois en droit maritime Sergio M. Carbone
La doctrine et la jurisprudence la plus récente relèvent de plus en plu les limites de l’utilisation du critère de la nationalité du navire dans la solution des conflits de loi.
En ce qui concerne les conflits de lois relatifs aux transports maritimes de marchandise, on tient compte des différences des solutions adoptées à propos des charter-parties, des transports tramps et des transports maritimes de ligne documentés par un connaissement.
A propos du contrat de travail maritime, on confirme l’affaiblissement du rôle de la nationalité du navire et l’importance croissante de la négociation collective internationale.
En ce qui concerne la responsabilité extracontractuelle, c’est la lex damni qui s’applique, sauf pour ce qui concerne les événements à l’intérieur du navire.
De cette analyse, enfin, résulte confirmée la tendance à l’internationalisation du droit maritime et la fonction résiduelle confiée à la loi du pavillon dans la solution des conflits de lois.

Unifying and Harmonizing Substantive Law and the Role of Conflict of Laws Katharina Boele Woelki
Traditionally, conflict of law rules designate only national substantive law as the applicable law. Many unifying and harmonizing substantive law instruments of both States and non-State organizations, however, are designed specifically for application to cross-border relationships. Achieving this objective is, generally, hindered by conflict of law rules. The requirements which non-national law needs to fulfil in order to be accepted as the law governing a cross-border relationship deserve clarification. Not only uniform law, such as the CISG and the envisaged European substantive law instrument for the law of obligations, but, particularly, instruments which are aimed at harmonizing substantive law, challenge the established systems of conflict of laws. In seeking a positive approach towards the application of a law other than national law various aspects need to be considered: (1) is the decision taken by a court or an arbitral tribunal; (2) what field of law (contract/delict/tort or family relationships) is involved; and (3) the objective or subjective (choice by the parties) designation of the applicable law.
E. Jayme: Narrative Norms in Private International Law – The Example of Art Law

Th.M. de Boer: Choice of Law in Arbitration Proceedings
Contrary to national courts, arbitral tribunals are not bound to local rules of private international law: there is no lex fori determining the choice-of-law issues that may be raised in arbitration proceedings. Arbitrators are thus faced with the problem of choosing (a) the law governing disputes on the existence and validity of arbitration agreements, (b) the law governing the merits of the case, and (c) the law governing the proceedings as such. Most of these problems could be solved by an express choice of law by the parties. However, apart from the question of whether such a choice is valid and permissible and which law applies to that issue, the principle of party autonomy is of no avail in the absence of a (valid) agreement on the applicable law. In this course, various solutions to the choice-of-law problems that may arise in arbitration proceedings are discussed and evaluated.

Manlio Frigo: Circulation des biens culturels, détermination de la loi applicable et méthodes de règlement des litiges
La recherche de l’intérêt juridique à protéger dans le domaine de la circulation internationale des biens culturels représente le fil rouge de l’œuvre. La recherche se déroule tout en partant de la définition de la notion de protection des biens culturels, soit en cas de conflit armé, soit en temps de paix, pour se dédier aux problèmes concernant plus spécialement la spécificité des biens culturels mobiliers. L’incidence des problèmes de droit international privé, ainsi que des règles de droit international et de l‘Union européenne sur la circulation des biens sont examinés, par rapport aux problèmes de l’exportation et de la restitution de biens volés ou illicitement exportés. Les méthodes de règlement des litiges concernant la circulation des biens sont analysées notamment sous l’angle du recours aux voies diplomatiques et judiciaires, avec une attention particulière à l’incidence de l’arbitrage dans la pratique internationale.
Le parcours suivi par l’auteur lui impose de se poser la question concernant la recherche d’une possible identité entre le rattachement culturel d’un bien à un territoire o à une collectivité donné et le rattachement juridique et d’essayer de poser des limites aux rôles différents joués dans ce domaine par les raisons du droit, celles de la culture, de l’histoire et de la politique.