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Author: Adam Marks
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) was a significant and traumatic event in the history of Europe. Based upon original archival research conducted across European archives, this book discusses both the successes and failures of the early Stuarts’ foreign policy.
It sheds new light on the Spanish match, reassesses the military capacity of the Stuart state in the run up to the Civil War and fundamentally challenges the idea that there was little or no engagement by England with the Thirty Years’ War.
Author: Mark Pittaway
Editor: Adam Fabry
From the Vanguard to the Margins is dedicated to the work of the late British historian, Dr Mark Pittaway (1971-2010), a prominent scholar of post-war and contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Breaking with orthodox readings on Eastern bloc regimes, which remain wedded to the 'totalitarianism' paradigm of the Cold War era, the essays in this volume shed light on the contradictory historical and social trajectory of 'real socialism' in the region.

Mainstream historiography has presented Stalinist parties as 'omnipotent', effectively stripping workers and society in general of its 'relative autonomy'. Building on an impressive amount of archive material, Pittaway convincingly shows how dynamics of class, gender, skill level, and rural versus urban location, shaped politics in the period. The volume also offers novel insights on historical and sociological roots of fascism in Hungary and the politics of legitimacy in the Austro-Hungarian borderlands.

Abstract

Four techniques, i.e., perineal patterns, isozymes, specific sequence characterised amplified region-polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), were compared for the identification of species of root-knot nematode (RKN) from Libya. The RAPD technique proved superior for species diagnosis. A population from Massa that could not, because of atypical patterns, be identified using either perineal patterns or isozyme phenotypes, showed amplification patterns consistent with those of M. incognita. A new esterase phenotype is described for this population. Single egg mass lines from two other locations, Elhamma and Durnah, were identified as M. javanica, whereas those from Aun Mare were identified as M. incognita. RAPDs were used to examine the relationships between the Libyan isolates and isolates of Meloidogyne spp. from elsewhere. This technique revealed differences in the Libyan isolates of M. incognita that distinguished them from isolates from other geographic origins. The work demonstrates the potential to utilise the RAPD technique in an integrated programme to control RKN.

In: Nematology

Begging calls provide a way for parents to gauge offspring state. Although temperature is known to affect call production, previous studies have not examined the influence of ambient temperature at the nest. We recorded ambient temperature and begging calls of 3 day-old tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Our results indicate that typical daily temperature flux can dramatically alter a brood’s begging calls, depending on body size. Broods with small (low body mass) nestlings decreased the rate and length of their calls at colder temperatures, consistent with a biophysical constraint. In contrast, broods with large (high body mass) nestlings increased the rate of their calls at colder temperatures. Parents responded in a context-dependent manner, returning more rapidly after smaller nestlings gave longer begging calls. Our results suggest that the function of offspring begging calls is highly dynamic, with environmental conditions altering the relationship between begging calls and offspring state.

In: Behaviour
The traditional conception of security as national security against military threats has changed radically since the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945. The perceived nature and sources of threats have been widened as well as the objects of protection, now including individuals, societies, the environment as such and the whole globe. In International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security the contributors reflect on whether and how changing concepts and conceptions of security have affected different fields of international law, such as the use of force, the law of the sea, human rights, international environmental law and international humanitarian law.

The authors of this book have been inspired by Professor Said Mahmoudi to which this Liber Amoricum is dedicated.

Abstract

Two homologues of map-1, which encodes a putative avirulence factor, were found in a single egg mass line of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica that was virulent to the Mi-resistant gene. The main difference between the two encoded proteins of these homologues, MJ-MAP-1 and MJ-MAP-2, was the position of a 13 amino acid repeat region. Genes encoding two related but novel proteins, MJAP-1 and MJAP-2 (290 and 283 amino acids, respectively, including a potential signal secretion peptide), were also isolated from M. javanica. They have high similarity to MAP at the C-terminus. MJAP-1 and MJAP-2 differ from each other in the number and position of a seven-amino-acid repeat and in five other amino acids. The mjap genes are expressed in the subventral pharyngeal glands of second-stage juveniles of M. javanica, and transcription analysis in different developmental stages showed expression in the juvenile stage but not in eggs or adult females. Both mjap-1 and mjap-2 were expressed in both Mi-virulent and avirulent lines of M. javanica.

In: Nematology

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Open Access

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Open Access