Hans van Gossum, Adolfo Cordero Rivera and Rosana Sánchez
Rearing damselflies under laboratory conditions is a promising means of solving a variety of biological questions. Therefore, in order to improve the success of future researchers we felt the need to indicate potential difficulties in carrying out rearing experiments. Laboratory crosses were obtained using virgin animals originating from natural populations in Belgium and Spain. Resulting offspring was maintained, under laboratory conditions, in small aquaria until emergence and in insectaries as adults. Our results show that keeping damselflies during their entire life cycle under artificial conditions can be very difficult. We suggest that future researchers should change water regularly, supply sufficient food, and rear animals at low density or even individually. Furthermore, suggestions are given on type of food, advisable laboratory conditions and female oviposition methodology.
Guillermo Velo-Antón, César Ayres, Adolfo Cordero Rivera, Raquel Godinho and Nuno Ferrand
The pet trade is an important business around the world and one of the factors that might menace some wild populations. If wild animals are collected to maintain them as pets, this activity can produce several problems: i) an increase of population vulnerability, especially in the case of rare species; ii) the release of exotic pets in natural habitats, with the risk of competition with native species and the spreading of parasites and diseases, and iii) the maintenance of animals of unknown origin in Recovery Centres or zoos, which if too numerous are sacrificed or re-located to their supposed original regions. In this paper, we used seven microsatellite loci to analyze genetic diversity and genetic structure of the European pond turtle (Emys obicularis) covering the species range in the Iberian Peninsula. A Bayesian test revealed a genotypic differentiation between the regions sampled where most individuals (90%) were assigned to their sampling location with a probability higher than 95%. The likelihood values for individuals from Recovery Centres to came from one of our populations was higher than 90% in 22 out of 36 individuals. This work is a first step to relocate animals of unknown origin taking into account genetic similarities and contribute to reinforcement programs of endangered species.