The lack of paediatric medicines, including innovative and advanced ones, is a long-lasting and well-known problem at European and international levels. Despite the existing legal frameworks and incentives, children remain deprived of many kinds of therapy because of challenges faced in appropriately study and tailoring medicinal and other products for them. In this context, the necessity to foster paediatric research addressing unsolved and uncovered issues within a ‘translational approach’ has appeared. This article, after having clarified the concept of translational research in the perspective of the establishment of a European paediatric research infrastructure (RI), will identify and point out ethical, legal and regulatory issues particularly relevant in a children’s rights perspective. It concludes asking for the setting up of an adequate model of governance within a future RI, including adequate and independent ethical oversight and a pluridisciplinary common service dealing with ethical, legal and societal issues relevant for children.
The use of machine learning (ML) in medicine is becoming increasingly fundamental to analyse complex problems by discovering associations among different types of information and to generate knowledge for medical decision support. Many regulatory and ethical issues should be considered. Some relevant EU provisions, such as the General Data Protection Regulation, are applicable. However, the regulatory framework for developing and marketing a new health technology implementing ML may be quite complex. Other issues include the legal liability and the attribution of negligence in case of errors. Some of the above-mentioned concerns could be, at least partially, resolved in case the ML software is classified as a ‘medical device’, a category covered by EU/national provisions. Concluding, the challenge is to understand how sustainable is the regulatory system in relation to the ML innovation and how legal procedures should be revised in order to adapt them to the current regulatory framework.