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  • Author or Editor: Agnieszka Szpak x
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The author presents and analyses u.s. position regarding the extraterritorial application of the prohibition of torture before and after the change that occurred in November 2014 the Committee Against Torture. At that forum the u.s. stated that the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 1984 applies to “all places that the State party controls as a governmental authority”. This new test immediately gave rise to a lot of controversies and discussions on its exact meaning. As the author indicated it seems to be narrower than the test of effective control adopted in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. The article also contains the review of this jurisprudence.

In: International Community Law Review
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The aim of the article is to highlight several issues concerning the customary international law status of a number of international humanitarian law (IHL) treaty provisions that arose during the proceedings of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission. Specifically, two key issues will be analyzed, namely the Commission's findings that the Geneva Conventions and some provisions of Additional Protocol I reflected customary international law and that international landmine conventions create only treaty obligations and do not yet reflect customary international law. Also, some more detailed conclusions relating to particular problems, such as the issue of the customary nature of the ICRC ’s right to visit prisoners of war and its binding character for non-parties to the Geneva Conventions, will be discussed. The 2005 ICRC Study on Customary International Humanitarian Law and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia’s jurisprudence will also be included as a point of reference to identify the customary character of certain provisions. The main conclusion is that the Commission has significantly contributed to the emerging consensus regarding the status of certain norms of international humanitarian law as customary norms. Furthermore, it has identified lacunae in the existing standards of humanitarian law and suggested the development of new norms to fill those gaps.

In: Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies
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Abstract

On 4 August 2022, Amnesty International published its report ‘Ukraine: Ukrainian Fighting Tactics Endanger Civilians’, in which it accused Ukraine of violating international humanitarian law ‘by establishing bases and operating weapons systems in populated residential areas, including in schools and hospitals’ and in this way putting civilians at risk. According to the report, ‘[s]uch tactics violate international humanitarian law and endanger civilians, as they turn civilian objects into military targets. The ensuing Russian strikes in populated areas have killed civilians and destroyed civilian infrastructure’. The report sparked some controversies. The question that the author attempts to answer in this article is whether there are any factual or legal arguments supporting the conclusions of the report.

In: Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies