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Alan Friedlander

The early fourteenth century saw the resistance of the Franciscans to the conduct of the ecclesiastical Inquisition in the wake of the Cathar heresy, the crisis and destruction of the Spiritual Franciscan movement and the struggle to maintain the unity of France under Philip the Fair. The movement to suppress the Inquisition - unique in the Middle Ages - was conceived of and directed by Bernard Delicieux, one of the last leaders of the Spiritual Franciscans, whose rise to fame and involvement in these controversies forms the focus of this first monographic treatment in 70 years.
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Welcoming Ruin

The Civil Rights Act of 1875

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Alan Friedlander and Richard Allan Gerber

The Civil Rights Act of 1875, enacted March 1, 1875, banned racial discrimination in public accommodations – hotels, public conveyances and places of public amusement. In 1883 the U.S. Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional, ushering in generations of segregation until 1964. This first full-length study of the Act covers the years of debates in Congress and some forty state studies of the midterm elections of 1874 in which many supporting Republicans lost their seats. They returned to pass the Act in the short session of Congress. This book utilizes an army of primary sources from unpublished manuscripts, rare newspaper accounts, memoir materials and official documents to demonstrate that Republicans were motivated primarily by an ideology that civil equality would produce social order in the defeated southern states.