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In: The Regulation of International Shipping: International and Comparative Perspectives
In: Maritime Regime Building
In: The Future of Ocean Regime-Building
In: Governance of Arctic Shipping
Author: Aldo Chircop


Chapter 5 explores the use of imo regulatory and management tools to protect sensitive marine areas and species, including special areas designated under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/78 (marpol), particularly sensitive sea areas (pssas) and routeing and reporting. It discusses how these instruments have been applied and their potential for use in high seas areas to address conservation needs. The conclusion is there is sufficient legal and institutional basis for marpol special areas, pssas, routeing measures and reporting measures to protect ecosystems and species in high seas areas, but likely with some adjustments.

In: High Seas Governance
In: Climate Change and Environmental Hazards Related to Shipping: An International Legal Framework
Author: Aldo Chircop


In 2018 the IMO adopted the initial Strategy for the international shipping industry’s reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions towards achieving the goal set in the 2015 Paris Agreement. At this time the Strategy is no more than a preliminary structure to frame the measures that will need to be adopted for the short, medium and long terms. In the short term (2018–2023) a first suite of measures will be adopted, and the initial Strategy will be revised and adopted as changed in 2023 with proposed measures for the medium term (2023–2030) and long term (2030–2050 and beyond). New international standards, tools and best practices will be needed to supplement the existing energy efficiency management rules in the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973/78. This article discusses the Strategy and the role of the IMO in leading the shipping industry on the road to decarbonization.

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
In: Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea
In: Legal Regimes for Environmental Protection