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Alexandra Smith


Cvetaeva was never completely forgotten after her death in 1941, but her star began to rise in the 1960s, when (as this article shows) her work and biography began to be cited widely, and by all kinds of poets, as signs of freedom and artistic integrity. The article traces references to Cvetaeva in the works of numerous later Russian poets, beginning with the Thaw generation and moving into the post-Soviet present.

Montaging Pushkin

Pushkin and Visions of Modernity in Russian Twentieth-Century Poetry

Alexandra Smith

Montaging Pushkin offers for the first time a coherent view of Pushkin’s legacy to Russian twentieth-century poetry, giving many new insights. Pushkin is shown to be a Russian forerunner of Baudelaire. Furthermore it is argued that the rise of the Russian and European novel largely changed the ways Russian poets have looked at themselves and at poetic language; that novelisation of poetry is detectable in the major works of poetry that engaged in a creative dialogue with Pushkin, and that polyphonic lyric has been achieved. Alexandra Smith locates significant examples of Pushkin’s cinematographic cognition of reality, suggesting that such dynamic descriptions of Petersburg helped create a highly original animated image of the city as comic apocalypse, which followers of Pushkin appropriated very successfully even as far as the late twentieth century. Montaging Pushkin will be of interest to all students of Russian poetry, as well as specialists in literary theory, European studies and the history of ideas.

Kari L. Spivey, Trevor L. Chapman, Alexandra L. Schmitz, Derek E. Bast, Amelia L.B. Smith and Brian G. Gall

Predator avoidance behaviours occur when prey detect a predator but the predator has not yet detected and identified prey. These defences are critical because they prevent predation at the earliest possible stages when prey have the best chance of escape. We tested for predator avoidance behaviours in an aquatic macroinvertebrate (Caecidotea intermedius; order Isopoda) in a series of three experiments. The first experiment attempted to determine if isopods possess alarm cues by exposing them to stimuli from macerated conspecifics. We then exposed isopods to kairomones from non-predatory tadpoles (Rana catesbiana) and predatory fish (Lepomis macrochirus) that had been fed a benign diet. Finally, we exposed isopods to kairomones of predatory fish that had been fed a diet exclusively of isopods. We found that isopods did not respond to any kairomone cues or dietary cues from any potential predator, but did reduce activity in response to alarm cues. These results suggest that isopods exhibit predator avoidance responses toward chemical cues in a limited setting (they do not respond unless the information suggests an attack has occurred in the immediate past) or that bluegill have the ability to modify or mask the alarm cues from their prey.