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  • Author or Editor: Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald x
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In: Perception and Cognition in Language and Culture
In: Multi-verb Constructions
Knowledge can be expressed in language using a plethora of grammatical means. Four major groups of meanings related to knowledge are Evidentiality: grammatical expression of information source; Egophoricity: grammatical expression of access to knowledge; Mirativity: grammatical expression of expectation of knowledge; and Epistemic modality: grammatical expression of attitude to knowledge. The four groups of categories interact. Some develop overtones of the others. Evidentials stand apart from other means in many ways, including their correlations with speech genres and social environment. This essay presents a framework which connects the expression of knowledge across the world's languages in a coherent way, showing their dependencies and complexities, and pathways of historical development in various scenarios, including language obsolescence.

Abstract

Reference to information source may be accomplished with a variety of means, including verbs referring to reports, claims, or opinions, adverbs, parentheticals, prepositional phrases or particles. In about one quarter of the world’s languages, marking information source is obligatory. These languages have a grammatical category of evidentiality. Other languages have evidential extensions of non-evidential categories—such as conditional in French. These ‘evidentiality strategies’ share the evidential meanings and often give rise to grammatical evidentials. The term ‘evidential’ primarily relates to information source as a closed grammatical system whose use is obligatory. The term ‘information source’ relates to the corresponding conceptual category. Expressions related to information source are heterogeneous and versatile, and may allow more detailed specification of various degrees of assumption, inference, opinion than do grammatical evidential systems, and often reliability, and speaker’s evaluation of information. The paper focuses on various aspects of expressing information source across the world’s languages.

In: Evidentials and Modals

Abstract

Tariana is the only North Arawak language currently spoken within the multilingual linguistic area of the Vaupés River Basin. Long-term interaction based on institutionalized multilingualism between East Tucanoan languages and Tariana has resulted in the rampant diffusion of grammatical and semantic patterns (rather than forms). A complex system of negation in Tariana reflects a combination of genetically inherited and areally diffused patterns. Tariana preserves the Proto-Arawak negative prefix in derivational and nominal negation. Some inherently negative lexemes and the distinction between future and non-future negation in declarative clauses are most likely to have resulted from impact of East Tucanoan languages. I discuss each of the Tariana negators, and then draw a comparison with negation patterns found in related North Arawak languages of the Rio Negro and the adjacent areas. These include the Baniwa of Içana-Kurripako dialect continuum, Piapoco, Guarequena, Warekena of Xié (and its dialects Baniwa of Guainia and the now extinct Yavitero), Resígaro, Achagua, Yucuna, Bahwana and Baré (both extinct). The Appendix contains an overview of negative forms in these North Arawak languages, accompanied by a list of sources.

In: Negation in Arawak Languages
In: Copies versus Cognates in Bound Morphology
In: Linguistics and Archaeology in the Americas
In: Copies versus Cognates in Bound Morphology
In: Language at Large
In: Language at Large