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In autumn 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping presented his Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe play an important role in this ambitious infrastructure and connectivity project. The analysis of the 16+1 cooperation format, established by Beijing in 2012, shows that Beijing is able to establish new regional groupings that have the potential to undermine the unity of a larger regional bloc. Yet, it also demonstrates that China lacks a coherent BRI master plan. Rather, it pragmatically adapts its strategies to challenges and external criticism. The European Union (EU), notably the European Parliament (EP), became since 2015 more critical of the strategic impacts of BRI on Europe. Austria, which recognised the economic opportunities offered by BRI only recently, supports a common EU position. While Austria plays a strong—if not a leading—role in two Central and Eastern European cooperation mechanisms that may in the future also address BRI, that is, the Salzburg Forum and the Central European Defense Cooperation (CEDC), 16+1 remains the key institution for multi- and bilateral agreements on the New Silk Roads in this region. Austria, however, will remain only an observer and thus an ‘X’ in the 16+1+X format, reducing Vienna’s influence.

Open Access
In: Vienna Journal of East Asian Studies
In: Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia
Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia, edited by Alfred Gerstl and Mária Strašáková, sheds light on various unresolved and lingering territorial disputes in Southeast Asia and their reflection in current inter-state relations in the region. The authors, academics from Europe and East Asia, particularly address the territorial disputes in the South China Sea and those between Vietnam and Cambodia and Thailand and Cambodia. They apply International Relations theories in a wider regional and comparative perspective. The empirical analyses are embedded in a concise theoretical discussion of the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and borders. Furthermore, the book discusses the role of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and other multi-track mechanisms in border conflict mediation.
Contributors are: Petra Andělová, Alica Kizeková, Filip Kraus, Josef Falko Loher, Padraig Lysaght, Jörg Thiele, Richard Turcsányi, Truong-Minh Vu and Zdeněk Kříž.

Series Editors: and
Will the twenty-first century be the Asian century? Will the People’s Republic of China (PRC) overtake the United States as the leading global superpower? Will an institutionalised Third Bloc emerge in international relations and challenge the transatlantic alliance that has dominated world politics for such a long time? While opinions on the details differ strongly, there seems to be a certain consensus that the East Asian region, roughly defined as Northeast Asia (Greater China, the two Koreas, Japan and the Russian Far East) plus Southeast Asia (the ten members states of ASEAN), will be globally significant in the years to come and see its role growing. Such a role includes almost all fields such as economics, science and technology, migration, culture, and international relations. These issues are interrelated and often overlap.

This series, therefore, takes as its main focus the field of international relations post-WWII that pertain to the region and in particular the question of collective security and related issues, including options for institutionalised mechanisms of a joint regional security policy. The need for such a focus has become increasingly obvious: shifts in the global balance of power, as well as a multitude of conflicts in the region, some old and unresolved, some new and emerging, actual or potential, call for ongoing detailed appraisal and sustainable solutions.

In: Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia
In: Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia
In: Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia
In: Unresolved Border, Land and Maritime Disputes in Southeast Asia