Nigerian urban centers, especially the socially disadvantaged neighborhoods (sdns), like other disadvantaged communities across Africa, are increasingly becoming breeding grounds for youth violence and Armed Non-State Actors (ansas). The increasing waves of violence in socially disadvantaged communities in Nigeria and the inability of security apparatus to curtail them, suggests a ‘nation’ bewildered and a comatose state. This article attempts to dissect the root causes of youth violence in socially disadvantaged urban areas of Nigeria using relevant sociological theories. The paper subjects the current waves of youth violence across ethnic cleavages in Nigeria to a more nuanced and pragmatic analysis in order to dissect and unravel the socio-structural and political factors responsible. The paper argues that the inherent social structural maladies embedded in socially disadvantaged communities appear to have provided an impetus for youth violence and the emergence of ansas in Nigeria. These social structural maladies are captured within the context of social disorganization, relative deprivation, and broken windows theories. The assumptions of these theories provide insights into understanding the predisposing and enabling factors to youth violence and the emergence of ansas in socially disadvantaged communities in Nigeria and beyond. They also provide fundamental policy and research options to nip the contours of violence in socially disadvantaged environments in Nigeria and beyond in the bud.
Ali Arazeem Abdullahi and Moshood Issah
Ali Arazeem Abdullahi and Anas Danasabe Abubakar
Malaria is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). First-time pregnant mothers and children below the age of five are the most vulnerable. Governments of the region have relied on both local and international donor agencies to fight against malaria where emphasis has been on financial interventions, provision and distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), provision of rapid-test apparatus, and drugs for first line treatment. However, the impacts of local and global efforts have been minimally felt as the burden of malaria continues unabated. The rate of malaria infections is still apocalyptically alarming. This article argues that the reason why cases and deaths attributable to malaria continue to rise is because wrong approaches are used in the so-called broad fight against malaria. Based on the assumptions of the epidemiological triangle model, the web of causation and social determinants of health, the article argues that for countries in SSA to effectively fight malaria, the nexus between the agent, host, and environment must be acknowledged. It is constructively argued that efforts to tame the scourge of malaria in SSA would be in futility where the environmental factors that produce the breeding ground for malaria are not adequately addressed. European and American experiences are compared to sufficiently substantiate this line of argument.
Ali Arazeem Abdullahi, Mariam Seedat Khan and Tomilola Ifeoluwa Ajimati
This study investigates the vulnerability of the female adolescent to sexual harassment in motor garages in Ilorin, Nigeria. While informal organizations such as motor garages remain the stronghold of the economy in Ilorin, they also provide fertile-grounds for sexual harassment of female adolescents. This study explored the patterns, perceptions, and experiences of female adolescent hawkers who experienced sexual harassment in four selected motor garages in Ilorin, Nigeria. Data for this study was gathered using semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study found that sexual harassment of female adolescents in motor garages in Ilorin was pervasive, widespread, and alarming. All participants disclosed they had experienced some forms of sexual harassment in their day-to-day activities. However, perceptions about the severity of the sexual harassment vary from early, middle to late adolescents interviewed. Although, none of the participants disclosed being raped, some revealed that some of their friends had been victims of rape. This study recommends measures to minimize sexual harassment in informal organizations such as motor garages in Ilorin.