Author: Ali Hasan

I defend external world realism. I assume that the principle of inference to the best explanation is justified: roughly, a hypothesis that provides a better explanation of the total evidence is more probable than one that does not. I argue that the existence of a world of spatial objects provides a systematic explanation of the spatial contents of visual experience, and that it provides a better explanation than traditional skeptical hypotheses. This paper thus pursues the explanationist strategy of Laurence BonJour and Jonathan Vogel. It is an improved, more compelling defense, for at least two reasons. First, the attention to spatial properties, and in particular to what I call perspectival projections, makes the explanatory power of the realist hypothesis much more vivid and concrete. Second, the argument preserves and elucidates much that seems correct in the explanationist arguments others have offered while avoiding significant problems and shortcomings.

In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
Ḥasan Kāfī al-Āqḥiṣārī (951-1025/1544-1616) was born in Āqhiṣār, present-day Prusac in Bosnia, then part of the Ottoman empire. After his elementary training he went to Istanbul, studying under a number of established scholars there, focussing on law. After completing his studies he went back to Āqḥiṣār where he founded his own school in 983/1575. Eight years later he was appointed judge of Aqḥiṣār, and five years after that he transferred to the district of Srem to assume a judgeship there, writing and teaching on the side. At the outbreak of the rebellion of Moldavia and Wallachia against the Ottomans in 1004/1495 he quit his post as judge of Srem to return to Āqḥiṣār. It is there that he compiled the present collection of aphorisms, anecdotes and traditions on good governance, being the right balance between the four different ‘interest groups’ in any given society: military, administration, peasants, and traders/artisans.
Ṣafāʾ al-Ḥaqq (1879-1962) is the artist’s name of an Iranian Kurd whose family had moved from Kurdistan to Hamadan when he was still a child. His father was a respected businessman and a follower of the ideas of Shaykh Aḥmad Aḥsāʾī (d. 1241/1826). Though well-educated, having studied traditional and herbal medicine and animal husbandry, as an adolescent Ṣafāʾ al-Haqq spent a lot of time in his father’s business in the bazaar. Due to his convictions, his father lost his livelyhood and Ṣafāʾ al-Ḥaqq started travelling. He spent several years in India, where he worked in a British hospital in Bombay. He then returned to Hamadan, where he settled as a physician. As a poet Ṣafāʾ al-Ḥaqq wrote in the Hindī style. He was an amateur musicologist as well as an accomplished calligrapher. This volume contains his autobiography, a treatise on animal husbandry, and two further treatises on various aspects of Shaykhism and music.