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The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has limited tools to respond to rule of law backsliding by member states. Sanctions have never been used for this purpose, and the Assembly’s monitoring procedure—the most significant tool of scrutiny—presents a mixed picture. This article focuses on four states exhibiting severe rule of law backsliding: Hungary, which has evaded the procedure; Poland, which was placed under monitoring in 2020; Turkey, which in 2017 became the first state to have monitoring reopened; and Azerbaijan, which has been under monitoring since 2001. Through a first-ever analysis of debates, voting patterns, and tactics used in the Assembly, the article elucidates how proponents and opponents of monitoring have framed their arguments in the battleground of ideas about democracy and the rule of law in Europe. It concludes that the Assembly should fundamentally reappraise monitoring—and the possible use of sanctions—to meet the severity of the challenge.

In: European Convention on Human Rights Law Review
In: Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law
In: Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law
In: Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law
We live in an era of proliferating international legal domains and institutions, not least in the human rights field. For some, normative pluralism within human rights is inevitable, and even desirable. Others view it as a threat to the integrity and coherence of international human rights protection. How far do human rights standards and their interpretation by different regional and international human rights systems diverge? To what extent do human rights bodies ‘borrow’ from or influence each other in respect of their case law, practices and procedures? Is global human rights protection fragmenting or heading towards greater coherence? This edited collection addresses these questions through the insights of leading scholars and jurists with first-hand experience of human rights adjudication and litigation.