Author: Alison Kraft

Abstract

This chapter explores Pugwash in East and West Germany between 1957 and 1964, and the changing character of German-German relations within the organization. The Pugwash leadership encouraged the participation of both Germanies hoping to create a forum in which to confront and ameliorate this deepest of Cold War divides. Founded in 1959, the West German Pugwash group was highly active at conferences, although the country’s leading scientific institution, the Max Planck Society, distanced itself from the PCSWA. Meanwhile, the effects of Bonn’s Hallstein Doctrine severely limited the participation of East German scientists. This changed in 1963 when, triggered in part by the Berlin crisis, and through the efforts of European Pugwashites, steps were taken to enable stronger East German engagement with Pugwash. Important in this shift was the European Pugwash Group, then seeking to put European security – including the “German problem” – onto the Pugwash agenda. The strengthening participation of both Germanies was part of a wider ‘European turn’ within Pugwash strikingly evident at the conferences in Dubrovnik and Karlovy Vary in 1963 and 1964 respectively. This growing East and West European influence created difficulties for Pugwash, internally and externally.

In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in the Early Cold War
From 1957 onwards, the "Pugwash Conferences" brought together elite scientists from across ideological and political divides to work towards disarmament. Through a series of national case studies - Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, the US and USSR – this volume offers a critical reassessment of the development and work of “Pugwash” nationally, internationally, and as a transnational forum for Track II diplomacy. This major new collection reveals the difficulties that Pugwash scientists encountered as they sought to reach across the blocs, create a channel for East-West dialogue and realize the project’s founding aim of influencing state actors. Uniquely, the book affords a sense of the contingent and contested process by which the network-like organization took shape around the conferences.

Contributors are Gordon Barrett, Matthew Evangelista, Silke Fengler, Alison Kraft, Fabian Lüscher, Doubravka Olšáková, Geoffrey Roberts, Paul Rubinson, and Carola Sachse.
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy