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Anders Michelsen and Frederik Tygstrup

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Anders Michelsen and Frederik Tygstrup

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Series:

Anders Michelsen and Frederik Tygstrup

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Socioaesthetics

Ambience – Imaginary

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Edited by Anders Michelsen and Frederik Tygstrup

Aesthetics is no longer the preserve of art historians and philosophers of art. Changes in society, culture, economy, urban dynamics and everyday life, push us towards considering the aesthetic components of traditionally non-aesthetic domains. Today it is not only legitimate but necessary to query the relationship between the social as a cohesive and encompassing form of community and human institutions and the aesthetic, that is the sensual, sensory, or, perhaps better, the sensible. Increasingly the social seems to emerge from the sensible and sentient meaning of objects. The volume SocioAesthetics: Ambience – Imaginary collects scholars from social science, aesthetics, arts, and cultural studies in case-driven debate, ranging from biometrics to luxury commodities, on how a new alignment of aesthetics and the social is possible and what the possible prospects of this may be.
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Sven Jonasson, Liliane Ruess and Anders Michelsen

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The nematode fauna at two contrasting subarctic sites was studied at Abisko, Swedish Lapland. One site was a dwarf shrub dominated, tree-line heath (450 m a.s.l.) and the other a high altitude fellfield (1150 m a.s.l.). Responses in the composition of the nematode fauna to eight growing seasons with simulated climate change were monitored. The environmental manipulations consisted of temperature increase by using passive greenhouses, NPK fertilization, and a combination of both. A total of 98 species was found at the sites, with twice as many species at the heath compared to the climatically harsh fellfield. Species similarity was low, most likely due to differences in soil type and vegetation cover. The environmental perturbations caused distinct changes in dominance and trophic structure. Taxa common at both sites responded similarly with increases in Aphelenchoides, Filenchus and Plectus , and decreases in Eudorylaimus, Monhystrella and Teratocephalus . Generally, the manipulations changed the trophic composition in favour of fungal and plant feeding species, indicating a shift in the decomposition pathway. Modification provoquee du climat dans des sols subarctiques: reaction de la composition specifique des nematodes et de la structure de la dominance - La faune des nematodes a ete etudiee a Abisko (Laponie suedoise) en deux sites subarctiques contrastes. L'un consistait une vegetation de bruyere dominee par des buissons nains (a 450 m d'altitude) et l'autre etait situe sur un coteau a haute altitude (1150 m). La reaction de la faune nematologique aux modifications provoquees du climat a ete observee. Ces modifications comprenaient une augmentation de la temperature par utilisation de serres passives, une fertilisation NPK et une combinaison des deux. Un total de 98 especes ont ete trouvees dans les deux sites. La similitude des especes etait peu elevee, ce tres probablement du aux differences dans les types de sols et la couverture vegetale. Le nombre d'especes etait deux fois plus eleve sous bruyeres, que pour le coteau au climat rude. Apres huit saisons de croissance ayant comporte des perturbations de l'environnement, de nets changements sont apparus dans la dominance et la structure trophique. Les nematodes communs aux deux sites ont montre une reaction similaire, positive pour les Aphelenchoides, Filenchus et Plectus et negative pour les Eudorylaimus, Monhystrella et Teratocephalus. En general, les modifications ont change la composition trophique en faveur des especes fungivores et herbivores, indiquant par la des changements dans le mode de decomposition des vegetaux.

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Sven Jonasson, Inger Schmidt, Anders Michelsen and Liliane Ruess

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Nutrient availability is a major constraint on plant production and carbon storage in arctic ecosystems but knowledge on the decomposer food web interactions and their effect on nutrient cycling is scarce. We manipulated the soil food web at two contrasting subarctic sites, a low altitude heath and a high altitude fell-field. The influx of nutrients and energy in the soil was increased by addition of fertiliser nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and of labile carbon (sugar). In addition, two bactericides (penicillin and streptomycin) and a fungicide (benomyl) were applied to manipulate the bacterial and fungal component of the soil. Experiments were carried out in a factorial design with repeated additions over four growing seasons. The present study investigated the nematode fauna and the effects of the manipulations on the abundance of nematode species. Fertilisation resulted in an increase of general opportunists, especially Aphelenchoides. Application of carbon or bactericides had only minor impact on the nematode community. In contrast, the fungicide was very toxic to non-target organisms and greatly reduced the abundance of most nematode species, although Acrobeloides buetschlii showed tolerance and greatly increased in number. At both sites, Eudorylaimus was most affected by the treatments. Generally the manipulations performed resulted in a significant increase in stress tolerant or competitive dominant nematode species.