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André Goddu

Abstract

The astronomical traditions on which Copernicus drew for his major works have been well researched. Questions about Copernicus's arguments and his education in logic have been less thoroughly treated. The arguments supplied by Copernicus in his major works are shown to rely to a large extent on well-known dialectical topics or inference warrants. Some peculiar features of his arguments, however, point to sources at Cracow that very likely inspired him to construct arguments based on the requirement of real connections between antecedents and consequents as a condition for the validity of hypothetical conditionals.

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André Goddu

Abstract

This article summarizes Ockham's interpretation of Aristotle's categories, showing how his account of connotative concepts introduced a revision in the Aristotelian doctrine about the relation between mathematics and physics. The article shows that Ockham's account influenced William of Heytesbury, John Dumbleton, and Nicholas Oresme to re-interpret disciplinary relations and disciplinary boundaries. They did so, however, in ways compatible with other basic principles of Aristotelian philosophy of nature; nevertheless, their modifications of the Aristotelian account of mathematics stimulated later philosophers to construct robust theories of mathematics compatible with modern mathematical physics.

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André Goddu

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André Goddu

Abstract

Mereology is the philosophical study of part/whole relations. Copernicus, Mästlin, and Kepler addressed explicitly some of the logical issues in their support of heliocentrism. Their emphasis on harmony and commensurability to evaluate theories as more or less likely fits with their use of part/whole relations to argue for the greater reasonability or probability of heliocentrism. The essay summarizes the logical and metaphysical issues that earlier traditions discussed, and it uses those discussions to illuminate features of heliocentric theories that remain otherwise obscure even in Newton.

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André Goddu