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Marcel Rutten and André Leliveld

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Transforming Innovations in Africa

Explorative Studies on Appropriation in African Societies

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Edited by Jan-Bart Gewald, André Leliveld and Iva Peša

Africa abounds with examples of material and immaterial innovations that were envisaged, developed and designed elsewhere yet came to be innovatively and sometimes unexpectedly transformed in Africa. The authors in this volume explore how external innovations (products, technologies, services, institutions and processes) have been appropriated in African societies in order to be acceptable and relevant to local conditions, expectations and demands. Written from different disciplinary perspectives, the chapters demonstrate the depth and richness of innovation in Africa with, in some cases, surprising outcomes. The case studies presented are on subjects as diverse as the wine industry, trading stores, land reforms, washing powder, M-Pesa, cassava, weddings, international borders, guest houses, urban water supply, car technology, shallow wells, and railways and blacksmithing.
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Edited by Jan-Bart Gewald, André Leliveld and Iva Peša

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Cees van Beers, Peter Knorringa and André Leliveld

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Edited by Jan-Bart Gewald, André Leliveld and Iva Peša

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Inside Poverty and Development in Africa

Critical Reflections on Pro-poor Policies

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Edited by Marcel Rutten, André Leliveld and Dick Foeken

When discussing development issues in Africa, it is not sufficient to simply stress the ubiquity of failure, malnutrition, disease, predatory states and war; one also has to recognize that important aspects in the lives of millions of ordinary people have been transformed over the last five decades. The contributions in this book are rooted in extensive empirical research at local, regional and/or national level in different African countries (Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, South Africa and Uganda), while some take a pan-African view. All, however, offer insight from different analytical perspectives into the heterogeneity of poverty and development processes in Sub-Saharan Africa and confront the ideas, concepts and assumptions that lie behind pro-poor policies. The volume also encourages policy makers to choose realistic policy prescriptions in an attempt to move people out of poverty.


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Miguel Heilbron, André Leliveld and Peter Knorringa

Abstract

The innovation landscape in many African economies is changing dramatically. However, up to date, few empirical knowledge exists on how domestic firms operate in this changing environment. This (explorative) chapter aims to contribute to a more nuanced picture on innovation and successful entrepreneurship in African economies by presenting some cases of innovative entrepreneurs and start-ups in Kenya and Nigeria, which are exemplary for a new generation of companies started and managed by African entrepreneurs. The chapter specifically looks into the determinants of their success. Internal determinants for success include the level of education of the founding entrepreneurs, the registration and formalization of the company, access to capital, an entrepreneurial spirit and attitude among the founders of the firms, and effective and innovative use of available new technologies, in particular ICT. External determinants include and an emerging middle class of consumers, and both countries being leading regional innovation hubs and major entry points for investors and companies who aim to serve regional markets in West and East Africa. This conducive environment creates business opportunities for local start-ups and growth oriented local firms.