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We execute most of our movements in order to elicit an intended effect. This kind of intentionality is commonly assumed to drive a temporal illusion, referred to as Intentional Binding (IB): Stimuli intentionally elicited by one’s own action (i.e., effects) are perceived as temporally earlier compared to unintentionally occurring stimuli (not elicited by one’s own action). It is currently under debate whether intentionality is necessary for IB to occur, or whether causality might be sufficient for IB to occur. In the present study, we investigated the importance of an intention for the occurrence of IB. Employing a Libet Clock paradigm, we assessed IB for effects which participants were instructed to cause by their action (i.e., intended effect) as well as for effects participants were instructed not to cause by their action (i.e., unintended effect). Both effects, the intended as well as the unintended, were subject to IB, with a Bayesian analysis favoring no difference for both effect types. This implies that even an unintended effect is subject to IB and that, thus, causality instead of intentionality might be sufficient for IB.

In: Timing & Time Perception

Stimuli elicited by one’s own actions (i.e., effects) are perceived as temporally earlier compared to stimuli not elicited by one’s own actions. This phenomenon is referred to as intentional binding (IB), and is commonly used as an implicit measure of sense of agency. Typically, IB is investigated by employing the so-called clock paradigm, in which participants are instructed to press a key (i.e., perform an action), which is followed by a tone (i.e., an effect), while presented with a rotating clock hand. Participants are then asked to estimate the position of the clock hand at tone onset. This time point estimate is compared to a baseline estimate where the tone is presented without any preceding action. In the present study, we investigated IB for effects occurring after relatively long delay durations (500 ms, 650 ms, 800 ms), while manipulating the temporal predictability of the delay duration. We observed an increase of IB for longer delay durations, whereas the temporal predictability did not significantly influence the magnitude of IB. This extends previous findings obtained with the clock paradigm, which have shown an increase of IB for very short delay ranges (<250 ms), but a decrease for intermediate delay ranges up to delay durations of 650 ms. Our findings, thus, indicate rather complex temporal dynamics of IB that might look similar to a wave-shaped function.

In: Timing & Time Perception

When a particular target stimulus appears more frequently after a certain interval than after another one, participants adapt to such regularity, as evidenced by faster responses to frequent interval-target combinations than to infrequent ones. This phenomenon is known as time-based expectancy. Previous research has suggested that time-based expectancy is primarily motor-based, in the sense that participants learn to prepare a particular response after a specific interval. Perceptual time-based expectancy — in the sense of learning to perceive a certain stimulus after specific interval — has previously not been observed. We conducted a Two-Alternative-Forced-Choice experiment with four stimuli differing in shape and orientation. A subset of the stimuli was frequently paired with a certain interval, while the other subset was uncorrelated with interval. We varied the response relevance of the interval-correlated stimuli, and investigated under which conditions time-based expectancy transfers from trials with interval-correlated stimuli to trials with interval-uncorrelated stimuli. Transfer was observed only where transfer of perceptual expectancy and transfer of response expectancy predicted the same behavioral pattern, not when they predicted opposite patterns. The results indicate that participants formed time-based expectancy for stimuli as well as for responses. However, alternative interpretations are also discussed.

In: Timing & Time Perception

When changes occur in our environment, we usually know whether we caused these changes by our actions or not. Yet, this feeling of authorship for changes — the so-called sense of agency (SoA) — depends on the temporal relationship between action and resulting change (i.e., effect). More precisely, SoA might depend on whether the effect occurs temporally predictable, and on the duration of the delay between action and effect. In previous studies, SoA was measured either explicitly, asking for the perceived control over external stimuli, or implicitly by measuring a characteristic temporal judgement bias (intentional binding, i.e., a shortening of the perceived interval between action and effect). We used a novel paradigm for investigating explicit SoA more directly by asking participants in a forced-choice paradigm whether they caused a temporally predictable or a temporally unpredictable effect by their action. Additionally, we investigated how the temporal contiguity of the effects influenced the participants’ explicit SoA. In two experiments (48 participants each), there was no influence of temporal predictability on explicit SoA. Temporally predictable and unpredictable effects were equally often rated as own effects. Yet, effects after shorter delays were more often perceived as own effects than effects after longer delays. These findings are in line with previous results concerning the influence of effect delay on other explicit measures of SoA and concluding that explicit SoA is stronger for early effects.

In: Timing & Time Perception
Die soziale Referentialität des Sonetts
Das Sonett konstituiert in seiner langen Geschichte immer wieder soziale Räume für spezifische Gemeinschaften – zwischen Lebenden, aber auch über die Jahrhunderte hinweg mit historischen Personen. Während das Sonett häufig als poetologische Gattung im Vordergrund steht, profiliert dieser Band die vielfältige „soziale Referentialität“ des Sonetts – seine kommunikative Bindungskraft – und setzt diese ins Verhältnis zu intertextuellen, intermedialen und autoreferentiellen Bezügen. Gattungstheoretische Überlegungen gehen dabei Hand in Hand mit exemplarischen Interpretationen. Mit Beiträgen von Annette Gerok-Reiter, Andreas Kablitz, Joachim Knape, Hans-Georg Kemper, Bernhard Greiner, Michael Maurer, Gertrud Maria Rösch, Helmuth Mojem, Ralph Häfner, Cornelia Ortlieb, Friedrich Vollhardt, Jörg Robert, Katharina Grätz, Helmuth Kiesel, Monika Schmitz-Emans und Jürgen Wertheimer.
Der Club der Altstipendiaten e. V. (CdAS e.V.), die Alumnivereinigung der Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung, feiert im Juni 2012 sein 20-jähriges Bestehen. Seine Mitglieder arbeiten vielfach in herausgehobenen Positionen in Politik und Gesellschaft.
Zu diesem Anlass erscheint eine Festschrift, die die wissenschaftliche Arbeit der Mitglieder dokumentiert. Die Fachbeiträge sind ein Bild der erfolgreichen Arbeit der Stiftung und zeigen, warum qualifizierte Stipendienpro-gramme und politische Bildungsarbeit so wichtig sind. Eine reich bebilderte Chronik des Vereins rundet das Werk ab.
Rhetorik, Poetik, Diskursgeschichte
Wer von ›Philosemitismus‹ spricht, gerät unweigerlich in eine Debatte über den richtigen und falschen Umgang mit dem Judentum, er knüpft im schlimmsten Fall an eine antisemitische Diktion an. Er definiert nicht mehr, sondern diffamiert. Es besteht dennoch kein Grund, den Philosemitismus als Gegenstand einer wissenschaftlichen Analyse von vornherein zu verwerfen; stellt er doch – jenseits der Polemik – eine jahrhundertealte komplexe Schreib- und Redeform, mithin: ein diskursives Phänomen dar. Der vorliegende Band will den Regeln einer philosemitischen Rhetorik und Poetik auf den Grund gehen und begibt sich auf Spurensuche in der deutschsprachigen Literaturgeschichte der Neuzeit.