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In: Tilburg Law Review

We present a speculative account of lived-time at the level of sentience as distinct from sapience. It implies refraining from reference to clock-time. The account is necessarily in terms of meaning. Thus, familiar concepts such as the specious moment, retention and protention mechanisms are re-evaluated. Lived-time does not have a ‘time-line topology’. It has a volatile, irregular texture rather than a sequential linear order. Indeed, lived-time is necessarily an articulate moment, because awareness is not extended, but here-and-now. Thus, Gestalts in static images often have temporal qualities. Yet they can hardly reflect clock-time, as they are ‘frozen happenings’. This applies to many works of art. We especially focus on painting, sculpture and cinema. Narrative structures in the arts have a close similarity to lived-time. Thus, the analyses of the arts and of visual awareness, including daydreams and dreams, mutually illuminate each other. Our account rides the edge that separates sentience from sapience.

In: Art & Perception

Do generic observers in their free-style viewing of postcard-size pictures have a preference for specific modes of perspective rendering? This most likely depends upon the phrasing of the question. Here we consider the feeling of ‘presence’: does the observer experience a sense of being ‘immersed in the scene’? We had 40 Italian naïve participants and 19 British art students rate three types of rendering of ten ‘typical holiday pictures’. All pictures represented 130° over the width of the picture. They were rendered in linear perspective, Hauck maps, and Postel maps. The results are clearcut. About a quarter of the participants prefer linear perspective, whereas the Hauck map is preferred by more than half of the participants. Naïve observers and art students agree. Architectural scenes are somewhat more likely to be preferred in perspective. Preferences are not randomly distributed, but participants have remarkable idiosyncratic affinities, a small group for perspective projection, a larger group for the Hauck map. Such facts might find application in the viewing of photographs on handheld electronic display devices.

In: Art & Perception

Shading is a visual artist’s tool. It enables the indication of ‘landmarks’ inside the outline of shapes. Shading triggers behavioral responses in organisms throughout the animal kingdom and even affects the habitus of plants. Radiometry might be expected to account for the phenomenology. We derive the formal structures of shading that are expected to play a dominant role in perception. That they fail to do so suggests that shading is more of an interface template than a ‘cue’. This fits the artistic use as a ‘releaser’ very well. Pre-modern artists hardly acknowledge causal relations between various photometric variables. Their works show an effective use of various elements in their own right, without attempts at causal congruity. Modern art often defies physics on purpose. We identify manifest templates and relate these to conventional techniques in the visual arts.

In: Art & Perception

Many pictures are approximately piecewise uniform quilts. The patches meet in transitional areas that have a vague, ribbon-like geometry. These borders may occasionally get lost and sometimes pick up again, creating a ‘passage’ that partly blends adjacent patches. This type of structure is widely discussed in treatises on painting technique. Similar effects (lost outlines, passages) occur in drawing. The border regions are characterized by width, or sharpness and amplitude – which is the contrast between the patches on each side. Moreover, border regions have various textural structures. We propose a formal theory of such transitions. Images can be understood as superpositions of border areas. Stylistic changes can be implemented through the selective treatment of borders. The theory is formally similar to, though crucially different in meaning from, the theory of ‘edges’ (a technical term) in image processing. We propose it as a formal framework that enables principled discussion of ‘edge qualities’ (a term used by painters in a way unrelated to the use of ‘edge’ in image processing) in a well-structured manner.

In: Art & Perception

Are pictorial renderings that deviate from linear perspective necessarily ‘wrong’? Are those in perfect linear perspective necessarily ‘right’? Are wrong depictions in some sense ‘impossible’? Linear perspective is the art of the peep show, making sense only from one fixed position, whereas typical art works are constructed and used more like panel presentations, that leave the vantage point free. In the latter case the viewpoint is free; moreover, a change of viewpoint has only a minor effect on pictorial experience. This phenomenologically important difference can be made explicit and formal, by considering the effects of panning eye movements when perusing scenes, and of changes of viewpoint induced by translations with respect to pictorial surfaces. We present examples from formal geometry, photography, and the visual arts.

In: Art & Perception
In: Farm animal proteomics
Das Athenäum – Jahrbuch der Friedrich Schlegel-Gesellschaft versteht sich als Organ der Schlegel-Philologie sowie als Forum für die Romantikforschung in all ihren theoretischen und methodischen Ausdifferenzierungen.

Aus dem Inhalt:
• Johannes Windrich: Im Spiegel der Apostrophe. Anrufung und Reflexion in Novalis’ Hymnen an die Nacht
• Giovanna Pinna: Transzendental, nicht emotional. Zu Friedrich Schlegels Theorie des Erhabenen
• Melanie Seidel: Jahrhundertwende 1800? Ein kritischer Blick auf Luhmanns frühromantische Epochenkonstruktion
• Tanehisa Otabe: Das ›Exemplarische‹ und die ›Originalität‹. Schellings Kunstphilosophie im begriffsgeschichtlichen Kontext
In: Athenäum Jahrbuch der Friedrich Schlegel-Gesellschaft