Search Results

Restricted Access

Der Grund des Wissens

Zu Fichtes Wissenschaftslehre in den Versionen 1794/95, 1804/II und 1912

Andreas Schmidt

Restricted Access

Series:

Andreas Schmidt

Abstract

This article is devoted to Fichte’s theory of intersubjectivity in his Foundations of Natural Right (1796/97). I will attribute three theses to Fichte. Firstly, an ontological thesis: To be a free rational being consists of socially ascribing a normative status. Secondly, a transcendental thesis: The conviction that other rational beings exist is a necessary condition for consciousness of oneself as a free rational being. Thirdly, a phenomenological thesis: Recognition of other subjects is immediate, not the result of some argument by analogy. It is, however, argued that Fichte’s belief-directed argument is insufficient to preclude skepticism regarding the existence of other subjects.

Restricted Access

Andreas T. Schmidt

Is freedom a plausible political value for animals? If so, does this imply that animals are owed legal personhood rights or can animals be free but remain human property? Drawing on different conceptions of freedom, I will argue that while positive freedom, libertarian self-ownership, and republican freedom are not plausible political values for animals, liberal ‘option-freedom’ is. However, because such option-freedom is in principle compatible with different legal statuses, animal freedom does not conceptually imply a right to legal self-ownership. Nonetheless, a concern for animal option-freedom means that humans do have a pro tanto duty of non-interference. Arguments familiar from the liberal tradition moreover imply that such a duty speaks for drastic reforms of existing animal law. But it does not imply wholesale abolitionism: it neither rules out positive duties towards animals nor means that we should abandon all interactions with animals.

Restricted Access

Series:

E.J. van Donzel and Andrea Schmidt

Alexander's alleged Wall against Gog and Magog, often connected with the enclosure of the apocalyptic people, was a widespread theme among Syriac Christians in Mesopotamia. In the ninth century Sallam the Interpreter dictated an account of his search for the barrier to the Arab geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. The reliability of Sallam's journey from Samarra to Western China and back (842-45), however, has always been a highly contested issue. Van Donzel and Schmidt consider the travel account as historical.
This volume presents a translation of the source while at the same time it carefully looks into other Eastern Christian and Muslim traditions of the famous lore. A comprehensive survey reconstructs the political and topographical data. As so many other examples, also this story pays witness to the influence of the Syriac Christian tradition on Koran and Muslim Traditions.
Restricted Access

Andrea Frankenberg, Andreas Paffrath, Johannes Hallmann and Harald Schmidt

Abstract

In an attempt to evaluate the occurrence and economic importance of plant-parasitic nematodes in organic farming in Germany, a survey was conducted with the main emphasis on vegetable and cereal production systems. For vegetables, the survey included quantification and identification of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil samples and a questionnaire for growers querying production factors and damage levels. For cereals, the survey focused on quantification and identification of plant-parasitic nematodes in soil and plant samples. Overall, Pratylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus were the most prominent nematode genera under both production systems with an incidence of over 90% of the samples. Meloidogyne was detected in 51% of the samples in both systems. Other nematode genera showed differences between the two production systems. In production systems with a high frequency of vegetables, Paratylenchus was detected in 56% of the samples and Heterodera in 15%, whereas in rotations with a high cropping frequency of cereals, incidences of plant-parasitic nematodes were 56% for Heterodera, 47% for Trichodorus and 45% for Paratylenchus. Yield losses could exceed 50% on carrots, onions and cereals and were most pronounced on sandy soils. In many cases, nematode problems started 5 to 10 years after conversion to organic farming. The survey indicated that plant-parasitic nematodes are widely spread in organic farming in Germany and can cause severe damage which may result in complete loss of the crop.

Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf), Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster), Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) and Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)