Feeling is the existential experience of being matter from the inside. Feeling entangles us with the whole, parallel to the entanglement between observer and observed described in modern physics. Understanding organisms as embodied feeling is the missing link to making sense of the weirdness of modern physics, particularly the fact that the ‘observer’ is always connected to the ‘objects’ described (so-called ‘entanglement’). In organisms, such entanglement is created through subjective experience—feeling. Feeling is entanglement experienced as inwardness, and as desire for more entanglement in order to unfold and live (Spinoza’s ‘Conatus’). Through inner experience organisms reveal that ‘observations’ are not made by ‘observers’ about ‘objects’, but actually are the inward aspect of the world’s involvement with itself. Every standpoint is an experience of the whole getting in touch with itself. This panpsychic view can help us understand the degree to which all of reality is profused with subjectivity, and how our own subjective experience is an experience which the whole makes about being itself. With this, we are able to formulate a ‘general theory of conativity’. This views the desire for mutual transformation and its accompanying creation of standpoints of meaning and concern as an irreducible feature of reality.
Vergesellschaftung in Religion und sozialer Lebenswelt
Edited by Ines Weber and Andreas Holzem
Tomáš Kolář, Vladimír Gryc, Konrad Mayer, Michal Rybníček, Hanuš Vavrčík, Andrea Weber and Michael Grabner
Associate-editor Shuichi Noshiro
Hand spinning has become increasingly popular as a recovery of the traditional techniques of natural fibre processing and cultural heritage protection. Modern spinning wheels are usually made of easily available wood species, particularly hardwoods, and one spinning wheel usually consists of one or two species. However, the wood species that were used for the individual parts of old spinning wheels in Central Europe are still unknown. To improve our understanding of traditional craftsmen and their skills, we investigated old spinning wheels that originated from Central Europe in the 19th and the 20th century. In this study, we present a collection of 643 samples from 54 artefacts representing the region between the European Alps and the Western Carpathians. Spinning wheels were usually made of 3 to 5 wood species, and the species selection varied among regions. Generally, high wood density (> 600 kg ∙ m -3 ) species prevailed in Austria and Western Slovakia, but lower wood density (< 600 kg ∙ m-3) species were preferred in the south-eastern Czech Republic. Easily workable species were used for the production of the spinning wheels, primarily Tilia, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, and Acer. In addition to these species, a high proportion of fruit-bearing trees and three shrubs were identified. Wood anatomy, as an important scientific method, contributed to understanding the reasons for species selection and the suitability of their properties which will enable the conservation of sustainable folk traditions and crafts, as well as the knowledge of traditional craftsmen.