The goal of this paper is to investigate the nature of consciousness, but also to develop C.G. Jung’s “Theory of Mind” in the light of evolutionary psychology. I try to demonstrate here evidence supporting the hypothesis of “continuity” (direct relationship, similarity) between the cognitive conscious processes (for instance on a level of communication) of human beings and other primates – in this case the chimpanzees bonobo – but also trying to support the general applicability of the theory of the self in psychological studies.
Nowadays the subject of consciousness still requires new studies and research to let us find out its immanent nature. This paper refers to the theory of consciousness in the context of analysis of cognitive functioning of the individuals with learning disability and cognitive functioning of the apes – pygmy chimpanzees.
Jung once said: “The nature of consciousness is a riddle whose solution I don’t know.” In this paper we are going to follow this riddle supporting Jung’s work and developing our insight into this still not fully understood area.
The book is a volume of the collected works of sixteen different authors. They reflect the contemporary meaning of C. G. Jung’s theory on many fields of scientific activity and in a different cultural context: Japanese, South American and North American, as well as European: English, Italian and Polish. The authors consider a specific milieu of Jung’s theory and his influence or possible dialogue with contemporary ideas and scientific activity. A major task of the book will be to outline the contemporary—direct or indirect—usefulness and applicability of Jung's ideas at the beginning of the twenty-first century while simultaneously making a critical review of this theory.