Editor: Angela Ralli
This volume provides an unprecedented collection of data from Asia Minor Greek, namely from Cappadocian, Pharasiot, Silliot, Smyrniot, Aivaliot, Bithynian, Pontic, Propontis Tsakonian and the dialect of Adrianoupolis. It offers fresh and original reflections on the study of morphology, dialectology and language contact by examining issues regarding inflection, derivation and compounding, dealt with by Metin Bağrıaçık, Marianna Gkiouleka, Aslı Göksel, Mark Janse, Brian D. Joseph, Petros Karatsareas, Nikos Koutsoukos, Io Manolessou, Theodore Markopoulos, Dimitra Melissaropoulou, Nikos Pantelidis and Angela Ralli. An in-depth investigation of phenomena aims to increase our understanding of language change. They result either from a natural evolution of Asia Minor Greek, or from the interaction between the fusional Greek and the agglutinative Turkish or the semi-analytical Romance.
Author: Angela Ralli

Abstract

In recent years, morphology has received increasing attention within linguistic theory. It deals with word structure and attracts significant interest in languages that are morphologically rich, such as Modern Greek (hereafter Greek). In this paper, I present an overview of the main theoretical studies that focus on Greek morphology in the last four decades, with a particular emphasis on those following the framework of generative grammar. Reasons of space prevent me from giving an exhaustive presentation of all the topics that have been examined from a synchronic point of view. Moreover, I do not take into consideration studies on historical and dialectal morphology or lexical borrowing, or works that cover areas where morphological issues interact with research in domains such as computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics.

In: Journal of Greek Linguistics
Author: Angela Ralli

Abstract

In this paper I give an overview of several syntactic and morpho-syntactic phenomena applying to a range of Modern Greek dialects. I present a descriptive account of these phenomena, and refer to some possible theoretical analyses put forward by a number of well-known linguists. In certain cases, I offer evidence for the cross-dialectal occurrence of a phenomenon as a contribution to the establishment of syntactic isoglosses, and report some hints of its diachronic development when the available sources permit. <br /> My data are drawn not only from written sources, but also from the oral material that has been collected in the last six years from several Greek areas, and stored in the Modern Greek Dialects Laboratory (MGDL) of the University of Patras. <br /> The paper has the following structure: Section 1 contains some general observations with respect to the study and development of Modern Greek dialects. Dialectal word order is presented next (Section 2), followed by certain observations on the use of complementizers (Section 3), negation (Section 4), and sentential particles (Section 5). The issues of infinitival forms and periphrastic tenses (perfect and future) are examined in Section 6, while elements appearing in wh-questions constitute the topic of Section 7. The case form of the indirect object is tackled next (Section 8), and the paper ends with the well-described topic of verbal clitics, which is presented in Section 9. The paper concludes with remarks stressing the importance of research in the field of Modern Greek dialectology.

In: Journal of Greek Linguistics
In: The Morphology of Asia Minor Greek
Author: Angela Ralli

Abstract

This article deals with the morphological topics of prefixoids and verb borrowing in Aivaliot, a dialect spoken before 1922 in Western Asia Minor and nowadays in certain dialectal enclaves in Greece. After giving a brief historic and linguistic overview of the dialect, it describes and analyzes two native prefixoids which do not exist in Standard Modern Greek, plaku- and sa-, claiming that there is a way to have a synchronic look at these items and that it is possible to consider their category as being morphologically distinct from the categories of stems and affixes. It argues that the existence of affixoids should be seen as language dependent and that they may appear in languages with stem-based morphology, such as Greek. The crucial role of stem morphology is also pointed out in the subsequent section of verb borrowing, where Aivaliot verbs of both Turkish and Italo-Romance origin are examined. It is proposed that for a language it is possible to borrow and accommodate verbs, provided that certain conditions are met: for instance, integration of the loan items according to the rules of its morphology and a certain matching between its morpho-phonological characteristics with those of the donor.

In: The Morphology of Asia Minor Greek

This article aims to test the general validity of borrowability scales by investigating contrastively two contact induced linguistic varieties of Greek. It tries to elucidate the factors that facilitate or inhibit the borrowability of free grammatical elements, which are usually considered as less amenable to transfer. It argues against the formulation of any borrowability scales of a generalized predictive power, even in cases where there is a common denominator. It suggests that factors such as the (in)compatibility between the two languages in contact, specific re-arrangements brought to the replica language, and the category of the items under investigation play a key role for the adoption of free grammatical elements. It demonstrates that while borrowability of free grammatical elements is not shown to be an exact mirroring of their ranking on the cline of lexicality-grammaticality, general tendencies seem to be at play.

In: Journal of Language Contact

This paper discusses data from the nominal paradigms of two dialectal varieties of East Lesvos, those of Thermi and Pamfila. It is shown that there is abundant evidence for the key role of the paradigm in the phonological realization of the [noun-clitic] clusters. We argue that the grammars of these dialectal varieties must crucially include constraints that require identity between related surface forms in the [noun-clitic] paradigm. This proposal has received considerable support by independent work, carried out mainly within Optimality Theory, in various languages. The Lesvian dialectal varieties, however, allow us to probe deeper into the precise statement of such intra-paradigmatic identity constraints. We show, first, that the identity constraints holding among various surface forms must have a limited domain of application, circumscribed by the forms of the paradigm and only those. Second, we show that intra-paradigmatic identity constraints do not require identity uniformly among all surface forms of the paradigm. Rather, distinct identity constraints hold between distinct forms. For instance, the identity constraint between the {+first person, +singular} and the {+third person, +singular} is different from that holding between the {+first person, +singular} and the {+first person, +plural}. We argue, specifically, that the network of such intra-paradigmatic identity constraints is projected on the basis of shared morphosyntactic features along the dimensions of Person and Number that enter into the construction of the paradigm.

In: Journal of Greek Linguistics

Abstract

We investigate two Turkish suffixes, the relational and privative suffixes, borrowed into an inner Asia Minor Greek dialect, Pharasiot Greek. We show that while they are phrase-level suffixes in Turkish, they are accommodated into Pharasiot Greek as morphological affixes, conforming to the native word formation rules of the language. We further argue that whereas the privative suffix was borrowed into Pharasiot Greek as a stem-level suffix, the relational suffix has been borrowed in two guises: one which is accommodated as a stem-level suffix and which attaches to common nouns, and another one which is accommodated as a X0-level suffix and which attaches only to place names. This suggests that place names are assumed to form a distinct class than common nouns in the target language.

In: The Morphology of Asia Minor Greek