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Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

In recent years, the Sápmi region has witnessed an expansion of resource extraction activities. The enjoyment of human rights of the Sámi indigenous people will likely be challenged by extractive industries, unless effective measures are implemented to mitigate the possible effects of these activities. In this article, we explore the possibility of integrating human rights impact assessment (hria) in license granting mechanisms such as environmental impact assessment (eia). Our goal is to explore what international standards are available for conducting hrias and whether these would bring benefit to license granting processes. Based on our analysis, we recommend that the integration of hrias, particularly concerning Sámi rights, in response to resource developments in the Sápmi region, would on one hand bring a stronger normative value to such processes, offering a greater legal protection for Sámi, and on the other hand offer strengthened trust between communities and the companies, in resource extractions.

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Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

Abstract

The Arctic is largely a geographically defined region. In terms of territory, the region is politically divided into eight fragmented areas, each of which is administered by the national jurisdiction of a state. At times, the inhabitants’ Arctic societal identity is in conflict with their so-called national or civic-identity, determined by citizenship. Even though the Arctic is not a homogenous region, it shares similar characteristics, in terms of climatic conditions, livelihood practices, and the presence of culturally unique groups (e.g., indigenous and tribal groups). In this chapter, we endeavor to determine how the Artic identity is formed within a transnational setting and what values are to be protected and promoted for the Arctic societal identity to exist and perpetuate. To this end, we employ a case study on extractive industrial developments in Fennoscandia. We show how, on the one hand, mining development brings economic incentives to the society and promotes its material values, but on the other hand, it adversely or disproportionately affects the local population by threatening the region’s traditional societal characteristics. We explore how an Arctic society in Fennoscandia promotes its societal security in the event of extractive industrial developments, by adopting measures essential to the society’s stable functioning and sustainability.

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Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security

Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples

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Edited by Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

Understanding the Many Faces of Human Security: Perspectives of Northern Indigenous Peoples addresses the different aspects of the human security challenges threatening Northern indigenous peoples. These peoples, whose unique, nature-based livelihoods maintain their identity, face difficulties linked to a changing natural and social environment. Their traditional worldviews are challenged as the world they have known for generations is literally melting away. The North experiences numerous pressures linked to rapid modernization, industrialization, demographic pressure and cultural changes. These threats are presented from various angles, such as indigenous understanding of security, governance, sustainability, livelihood practices, mining, nature-based resources and land use management, gender and the elderly. The focus groups of the book are the Ainu, Inuit, Nenets, Sámi and the Mongolian indigenous herders.
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Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

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Kamrul Hossain and Anna Petrétei

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Edited by Kamrul Hossain, José Miguel Roncero Martín and Anna Petrétei

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Edited by Kamrul Hossain, José Miguel Roncero Martín and Anna Petrétei

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Kamrul Hossain, José Miguel Roncero Martín and Anna Petrétei

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Edited by Kamrul Hossain, Jose Miguel Roncero Martin and Anna Petrétei

Human and Societal Security in the Circumpolar Arctic addresses a comprehensive understanding of security in the Arctic, with a particular focus on one of its sub-regions – the Barents region. The book presents a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective to which the Arctic is placed as referent, and special attention is paid to the viewpoint of local and indigenous communities. Overarching topics of human and societal security are touched upon from various angles and disciplinary approaches, The discussions are framed in the broader context of security studies. The volume specifically addresses the challenges facing the Arctic population which are important to be looked at from human security perspectives.