The present study explores medical views on sexual health, gender and youth in Sweden from 1970 to 1999. In terms of gender-based roles, the responsibility for sexual health at this time turned out to be closely linked to girls. First, there was a clear perception that girls should take responsibility for their own and the couple’s sexual health, manifested in counselling, contraception and the understanding of risk-taking. Secondly, there was an underlying notion that boys had greater sexual needs than girls. Boys were seen as irresponsible and uninterested in counselling and decisions on contraception. Medical experts hardly mentioned joint responsibility for sexual health and contraception before the 1990s. In addition, there was a widespread perception that it was the risk-taking of some girls that increased exposure to sexual ill-health. They presented girls who did not adhere to the female responsibility norm as problematic. The study also showed a solid heteronormative view of young people’s sexual health.