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  • Author or Editor: Antonio J. Morales x
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The emergence of ancient Egyptian mortuary literature in the third millennium bce is the history of the adaptation of recitational materials to the materiality of different media. Upon a gradual development, the transformation of the oral discourse into writing began with the use of papyri for transcribing the guidelines of ritual performances as aide-mémoire, and culminated with the concealment of sacerdotal voices and deeds into the sealed-off crypt of king Wenis (ca. 2345 bce). The process of committing ritual and magical recitations into scriptio continua in the Pyramid Texts was subject to several stages of adaptation, detachability, and recentering. Investigating how the corpus emerged through the combination of recitations from different settings elucidates the transformation of oral written discourse into literary style, the traces of poetic and speech elements in the corpus, and its flexibility to disseminate and adapt to different mortuary practices, beliefs and contexts in the second millennia bce and beyond.

In: Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions


In 2009, the Spanish Mission of the University of Jaén found an intact burial in the courtyard of tomb QH33. The burial chamber comprised a very fragmented coffin and a mummy of a young man decorated with a funerary mask, a cartonnage pectoral, and a necklace of glazed-stone beads. The burial also included a small wooden coffin that contained a shabti figurine. The coffin and shabti inscriptions allowed archaeologists to identify the deceased as Sarenput, son of Sattjeni, a member of the provincial ruling family. Upon arduous restoration work, the mission was able to reconstruct an excellent example of a late twelfth dynasty coffin, with wadjet-eyes, false-door palace-façade decoration, and an exceptional and unparalleled textual program. Examination of the iconographic and textual program on the coffin of Sarenput the Younger shows that it includes features common to the late twelfth dynasty, but no modifications observed in thirteenth dynasty coffins. Nevertheless, the design of the coffin anticipates some of these modifications, through its absence of inner decoration and the use of religious texts on the outer sides of the coffin. When taken together, these details mean that the coffin can be dated to the middle of Amenemhat III’s reign, around 1800 BCE.

In: Middle Kingdom Palace Culture and Its Echoes in the Provinces
In: Middle Kingdom Palace Culture and Its Echoes in the Provinces
Middle Kingdom Palace Culture and Its Echoes in the Provinces addresses the significant gaps that remain in scholarly understanding about the origins and development of Egypt’s “Classical Age”. The essays in this volume are the end result of a conference held at the University of Jaén in Spain to study the history, archaeology, art, and language of the Middle Kingdom. Special attention is paid to provincial culture, perspectives, and historical realities. The distinguished group of Egyptologists from around the world gathered to consider the degree of influence that provincial developments played in reshaping the Egyptian state and its culture during the period. This volume aims to take a step towards a better understanding of the cultural renaissance, including the ideological transformations and social reorganization, that produced the Middle Kingdom.