Research in the area of human sub-second-to-second timing has uncovered that emotional stimuli can influence our subjective timing, with much research highlighting that stimuli portraying high arousal negative emotions (for example, images of angry faces) cause a subjective lengthening effect, based on a potential fight or flight response. Further research has shown that in order for this effect to occur, the individual needs to be able to emulate the emotion that they have seen, suggesting that responses differ dependant on whether the individual is timing an emotional stimulus, or the individual is emotional while timing a neutral stimulus. Research in the area of social psychology has previously highlighted a link between social exclusion (peer rejection) and time distortion at the minute-to-multiple-minute range, with social exclusion causing a subjective lengthening effect of duration, supposedly due to cognitive deconstruction and emotional numbing. The current study aimed to investigate this further by examining the impact of peer rejection on sub-second-to-second timing. Participants completed a bisection task and were subsequently made to feel either rejected, or accepted by their peers. After this intervention stage, they again completed the bisection task. It was hypothesised that those who were rejected would experience subjective lengthening of duration, whereas those who were accepted would experience subjective shortening of duration. These hypotheses were supported. Implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
Time is an important aspect of people’s lives and how it is perceived has a great impact on how we function, which includes whether we engage in activities such as exercise that are beneficial for our health. These activities can also have impact on our experience of time. The current study aims to investigate human interval timing after completion of one of two tasks: listening to an audiobook, or engaging in a Zumba workout. Participants in this study completed two temporal bisection tasks (pre and post intervention). Bisection points (point of subjective equality) and Weber’s ratios (sensitivity to time) were examined. It was hypothesised that individuals in the Zumba condition would experience a distortion in their timing post workout consistent with an increase in pacemaker speed. Unexpectedly there appeared to be no significant difference in bisection points across or within (pre/post) the conditions, suggesting that neither intervention had an impact on an internal pacemaker. However, there were significant differences in sensitivity to timing after Zumba Fitness suggesting a potential attentional focus post workout. Implications and future directions are also discussed.