This paper explores the reworking of the biblical Sinai accounts in 4Q377 3 ii. While previous studies of 4Q377 focused on its depiction of Moses, the retelling of the Sinai theophany in this scroll has not received due attention. The paper scrutinizes the intricate web of biblical allusions in 4Q377 3 ii and analyzes the ways in which it deals with the difficulties embedded in the accounts of the Sinai revelation in Exodus and Deuteronomy. It demonstrates that the scroll’s interpretation of these biblical texts exhibits several similarities with the later Jewish sources.
This note suggests a new reading and reconstruction of the oft-cited 11QMelchizedek 2:6–8. This passage is a part of the “pesher for the last days” expounding on Lev 25:13 and Deut 15:2. Its vision of future liberation from spiritual captivity to Belial relies on the language and conceptual framework of the Jubilee Year. Moreover, the pesher refers to a temporal scheme of ten Jubilees. The new reading helps clarify the precise timing of the eschatological redemption, “the beginning of the first Jubilee after [the] te[n] Jubilees,” and its implication for the scroll’s scriptural exegesis.