The genus Neurohelea Kieffer is restricted to its type species, N. luteitarsis (Waltl) and is returned to the Heteromyiini. The Nearctic species previously recognized as Neurohelea nigra Wirth and N. macroneura (Malloch) are members of the Ceratopogonini and are placed in the new genus Atyphohelea. Neurohelea nigra Wirth is a new synonym of the type species Atyphohelea macroneura (Malloch), new combination. The Baltic amber species Neurohelea cothurnata (Meunier) is also placed in Atyphohelea as a new combination. An unnamed species from Taiwan is described and the pupa of A. macroneura is newly described. The male of Neurobezzia granulosa (Wirth) is described for the first time. The male previously identified as N. granulosa by Grogan & Wirth (1978) is probably the male of Amerohelea frontispina (Dow & Turner) in the Palpomyiini. Medeobezzia Yu is regarded as a new synonym of Neurobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, which now includes three species. A new world key to the genera of male and female Heteromyiini is provided. The phylogenetic relationships of the described genera are discussed.
The most recent key identifying Nearctic genera of Ceratopogonidae by Downes & Wirth (1981) is improved with modifications and additional characters for distinguishing the genera Alluaudomyia, Brachypogon, Ceratoculicoides, Ceratopogon, Nannohelea and Rhynchohelea. Suggestions are also provided for improvements to the world key to Ceratopogonini by Wirth & Grogan (1988).
Eleven species of Ceratopogonidae are recognized on the Galápagos Islands. Four of these appear to be endemic, six are widespread occurring elsewhere on the continental Americas and one is of uncertain distributional status. One of the endemic species is described as new, Dasyhelea sinclairi Borkent. Each of the species is most closely related to taxa occurring elsewhere than on the Galápagos Islands (with one possible but unlikely exception of two of these being sister species), indicating at least ten independent invasions of the islands by the ancestors or ancestral populations of these species. It is uncertain whether the widespread species have been brought through the agency of man or through natural dispersal to the Galápagos Islands. Based on comparisons with the Ceratopogonidae fauna of oceanic islands elsewhere, the presence of endemic species only in the genera Forcipomyia and Dasyhelea on the Galápagos Islands is likely due to the superior dispersal capabilities of members of these genera. This may also explain the presence of those ceratopogonid species occurring both on the Galápagos Islands and the New World mainland.
Borkent, A.: A world catalogue of fossil and extant Corethrellidae and Chaoboridae (Diptera), with a listing of references to keys, bionomic information and descriptions of each known life stage. Ent. scand. 24: 1-24. Copenhagen, Denmark. April 1993. ISSN 0013-8711. A world list of species of fossil and extant Corethrellidae and Chaoboridae provides a catalogue of all valid names and their synonyms, original author, type-locality, type status and depository, distribution and the citation of authors who give the latest descriptions of the male adult, female adult, pupal, larval and egg stage. References to the most recent keys, descriptions, and bionomic information for each genus are also listed. A synopsis is given of the current state of systematic progress in each family. Nomenclatorial problems are also discussed. Sayomyia lanei Belkin, Heinemann & Page is a new junior synonym of Chaoborus braziliensis (Theobald), and Chaoborus annulatus Cook is recognized as a new junior synonym of C. festivus Dyar & Shannon. Corethrella kerrvillensis (Stone), Corethrella manaosensis (Lane & Cerqueira), and Chaoborus boliviensis (Lane & Heredia) are recognized as new combinations.
The first instar larva of Corethrella appendiculata has a prothoracic proleg. This character state was previously considered to be the primary synapomorphy of the Chironomoidea and as such, draws into question the monophyly of that group.