Azolla is a small freshwater fern reproduces sexually and asexually (by splitting). The spores’ formation through sexual reproduction in the azolla species is influenced by climatic condition. Keeping this fact in view, the present study was conducted with an aim to study the impact of temperature on the sporocarp formation and also developing storage techniques for sexual propagation in the azolla species. The study showed that the sporulation in Azolla pinnata was more sensitive to increase in the temperature than Azolla microphylla. Azolla pinnata did not sporulate on rising maximum temperature; however sporulation in Azolla microphylla was delayed by one month due to rise in the temperature during second year compared to the first year. Conversion of the freshly collected sporocarps into Azolla microphylla plants were decreased by 4.2–9.3% on increasing minimum and maximum temperatures by 5°C and 8°C, respectively and conversion of the one month old sporocarps into plants was decreased by 1.8–8.7% on rising minimum and maximum temperatures. On storing sporocarps in the refrigerator resulted in higher germination percentage than stored at room temperature. Conversion of freshly collected sporocarps into Azolla plants increased on storage of the sporocarps mixing with soil (1:15) in the refrigerator than at room temperature. Germination of one month old Azolla microphylla sporocarps on storage in refrigerator after mixing with soil decreased during second year compared to first year. Therefore, in a controlled environment, azolla may be encouraged to grow sporocarps for exploiting full potential of azolla for eco-friendly agricultural and livestock management.
The education system in India continued to be based on the colonial legacy of bureaucratic administration even after fifty years of independence. But, under globalization and liberalization policies of the government, engineering higher education has acquired a new interpretation of increasing credential value, where the degree per se is more important for securing a high-paying job, primarily in the software and information technology sector, than for acquiring specific knowledge and skills. This is reflected in the employment pattern of the graduates with a core engineering background.
Interploidy crosses between Lilium lancifolium (3x) and Asiatic lily cultivar ‘Brunello’ (4x) were attempted for creating genetic variability and to analyse the progenies for different ploidy levels. Experimental results revealed that most of the crosses attempted were developed into fruits, confirming that male-sterile triploid lilies can be used as the female parent for crossing with a suitable male parent. Wide variation in chromosome numbers (28 to 38) was obtained in different plant progenies, indicating that aneuploidy is generated by 3x × 4x crosses. The nuclear DNA content analysis of 13 plant progenies showed that the 2C nuclear DNA content has increased (range = 32.60 pg to 41.32 pg) as compared to Lilium lancifolium, while it was found lower than the cultivar ‘Brunello. Further, morphological characterization of different plant progenies revealed significant differences among themselves, which confirmed the dependence of these traits on cultivars ploidy level. Therefore, present findings will be instrumental for development of new Lilium cultivars with high aesthetic value and utility.