The article analyses the depictions of archers in so-called 'Scythian' clothes (a high sharp cap or a rounded hood, a caftan and trousers) in Attic archaic vase-painting. The author concludes that these figures were neither conceived as real ethnical Scythians, nor associated by vase painters or their customers with this or any other people. The clothes were rather an iconographic conventionality symbolising a second rank character accompanying a hero. The latter was depicted as a hoplite. The 'Scythian' clothes corresponded to the character's function, not to his ethnical identity. This scheme in vase-painting existed between c. 530 and 490 BC, and then went out of use, because after the Greco-Persian wars these clothes began to be associated with ethnical identity, though not Scythian, but Persian. The real prototype of the 'Scythian' archers were the archers of different ethnical groups first of Median, and later of Persian army. The 'Scythian' attire of the archers on the vases, therefore, has nothing to do with the real Scythians of the North Pontic area.
The article is devoted to the publication of an inscription found in Tanais, which mentions the erection of a statue of the Bosporan king Sauromates iii (ad 229/230-231/232). The statue was commanded by a person whose name has disappeared and of which only the patronymic (the son of Asandros) is preserved; he was a commander of a “Thracian detachment and a square of hoplites”. A similar connection is mentioned in the funerary oration seg 55, 862 from Panticapaeum which allows me to suggest a chronological vicinity of two inscriptions and confirms the date of the second one at the end of the 2nd or in the first half of the 3rd century ad proposed earlier by G. Bowersock and C. P. Jones (the reign of Sauromates iii rather than Sauromates ii). An analysis of these and other inscriptions mentioning the “Thracian detachment” makes it possible to interpret this detachment as the Roman auxiliary cohors i Thracum. The soldiers of this cohort were probably sent to the Bosporus from the province of Lower Moesia (not from Bythinia–Pontus, as it was suggested earlier) together with those of legio i Italica who participated in the “Bosporan war” mentioned in an inscription from Preslav.
The article is devoted to fake inscriptions, which were published as original ones with a provenance from Olbia and Tyras. The earliest known example of such fakes is the inscription iospe i2 285, which was copied by H. K. E. Koehler in 1804 in Nikolaev and published by him in . At the end of the 19th century, a large workshop making fake inscriptions was active in Southern Russia, probably under the control of the famous dealers in antiquities and forgers, the Hochmann brothers. At first they managed to deceive scholars, and many fake inscriptions were published as genuine ones. However, V. V. Latyshev soon recognised numerous fakes and included a list of them in the fourth volume of the iospe (1901). Some forged inscriptions made in the same workshop are nevertheless still considered genuine ones and are published as such. The inscriptions iospe i2, 157; seg 47, 1196; seg 56, 903 belong to this group. Moreover, two copies of the inscription iospe i2, 188 were found in the museum’s collections: the first is now preserved in Kherson Museum, the second one in Odessa Museum. The first one is a genuine inscription, the second one is its copy made in the same workshop belonging to the Hochmann brothers.