An extra-biblical historical résumé, Deborah’s “new” song in lab 32:1-11 demonstrates both the continued use of the conventions of its biblical antecedents and the development of this literary form during the Second Temple period. It commences its review with Abraham, draws a number of devices from biblical résumés to unite the various episodes, alludes to various biblical reviews, and exhibits various thematic affinities with biblical literary models. While its incorporation of episodes into its retelling of Israelite history that do not appear in any of the biblical summaries and use of the scenaric style of the biblical story rather than the third-person brief report typical of biblical historical summaries are typical of Second Temple résumés, the full sequence of lab 32:1-11 has no parallel in Second Temple Jewish or Christian writings, thereby revealing the author’s guiding tenet—namely, that God fulfils the covenant by aiding His people throughout history.
This paper analyses Jub. 34:1-9, an extra-biblical account of Jacob and his sons warring against the Amorites. Herein, the Jubilean author portrays Joseph as an exemplary family man who assists his brothers in fighting for and occupying the allotment of Ephraim and Manasseh. While Joseph’s portrayal corresponds to the favorable presentation of the patriarchs in Jubilees, it also highlights Israelite solidarity in the face of an enemy attack. Enhancing Jacob-Israel’s military prowess, this unity leads the Israelites to victory and thus to inheritance of the land. While these themes appear apposite to the Maccabean period in general, the pericope does not reflect a historical military campaign.
Leviticus 19:17-18 has long been noted as possessing a significant role within the book of Jubilees. This paper examines the references to these verses, both explicit and via phrases alluding to the ordinance. Two specific aspects of the law are alluded to in Jubilees: “You shall not hate your kinsfolk in your heart” (Lev 19:17a) and “Love your fellow as yourself” (Lev 19:18b). The author of Jubilees understands the first as relating to peaceful coexistence, the second to malicious intent, specifically the intent to murder. This exegesis is consistent throughout Jubilees, as attested by the usage of fixed terms and idioms depicting the observance/violation of the law across various literary units.
Two poetic passages in 1 Maccabees depict historical circumstances via the use of apparel. 14:9 portrays the young men as wearing “glories and garments of war” as a marker of the peace and prosperity characterizing Simon’s reign. These contrast with the “shame” that shrouds the people following Antiochus Epiphanes’ desecration of the temple in 1:28. This paper explores the biblical background of the dress imagery, suggesting that the Maccabean author transformed the “robe of righteousness” in Isa 61:10 into “garments of war” on the basis of a gezerah shava with Isa 59:17. The biblical metaphor of “being clothed with shame” in 1 Macc 1:28, on the other hand, refers to the “putting on of mourning dress”—a practice also alluded to in v. 26.