One of the most prominent features of the new era of globalization is the rise of China. The rapid expansion of China’s industry to global dimensions, the substantial increase of its economic volume, and the dramatic increase in its building capacity mean that China is expanding its role as a major global economic power. However, anti-globalization arguments have emerged in some developed countries spurring anti-globalization policies in some areas. Within the context of new world trends in competition, China is facing two major issues similar to those faced in other countries: improving competitiveness through industrial transformation and upgrading, and putting in place effective governance of the market economy—with the goal of guiding the economy’s development in a desirable direction through adjustments of market mechanisms. Since the anti-globalization phenomenon is a reaction to the lack of inclusiveness in the globalization process, industrial development must move in a more inclusive direction as it transforms and upgrades itself, and the most important method of achieving inclusiveness is optimizing the market economy’s governance system.