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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

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Benjamin Wold

In 4QInstruction: Divisions and Hierarchies, Benjamin Wold challenges the interpretation of 4QInstruction as a deterministic and dualistic composition. In a re-examination of key fragments he offers new reconstructions and translations that indicate 4QInstruction envisaged wisdom available to all humanity, divisions among humankind and communities as the result of individual adherence to wisdom, and a hierarchy of authority as a result of individual merit.

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Benjamin Wold

Abstract

4QInstruction preserves an interpretation of the fifth commandment, to honor one's father and mother, which has similarities with Philo's comments on it. Because Philo's treatment of the command plays a pivotal role in assigning influences on instruction to family members in the New Testament, and the present opinion overwhelmingly views Philo as indebted to Greek schemas and content, evidence from more recently available Qumran literature suggests some of the New Testament Haustafeln may have more of a Jewish intellectual history than is currently acknowledged. This article explores the way biblical traditions—especially the Decalogue and creation traditions—are used for construing teachings to members of the family in the 1 Cor 11, Eph 5-6, Philo and 4QInstruction.