The Batavian name Pero is best understood as a derivative of Germanic *perō ‘pear’. Names that also feature the root per- are recorded from other parts of the Roman Empire in connection with Germanic speakers and seem to reflect the influence of pear growing in the Roman provinces. This influence was so great that the name of the p-rune also appears to have been derived from *perō ‘pear’. The early Germanic names Pero, Uxperus and Gamuxperus seem to represent occupation names, and are consistent with archaeobotanical evidence for the development of pear cultivation in the Germanic-speaking provinces of the Empire.
Difficult etymologies in Germanic include that of *hanha- ‘horse’ and *hanhistaz / *hangistaz ‘stallion’. Reflections of the latter term are widely evidenced in the Old Germanic dialects while the former is attested onomastically on a late-fourth-century memorial from Burgundy and has also been claimed to be reflected in early runic epigraphy. Both terms appear to continue a remorphologised s-stem *hanhaz ~ *hangisō and have clear Celtic counterparts. The development in Germanic seems to reflect the prehistoric date of the loaning of the s-stem *hanhaz ~ *hangisō from Celtic.
The runic inscription on a torc found in 1837 as part of a treasure at what is now Pietroasele, Romania, has long been taken to be a product of Gothic paganism. The torc is generally thought to preserve a reference to the Goths and to holiness, and to be a cultic artefact. Yet the Pietroasele treasure is typically argued by archaeologists to have been deposited at the time of the collapse of the Hunnic Empire and the adoption of Christianity by the Ostrogothic kings. The inscription may be better analysed as a Christian text that makes reference to the holy lands of the Goths.