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In: Soldatinnen
In: The Mongols' Middle East
in Encyclopaedia of Islam Three Online

In the medieval Middle East, the Sufi experience was not only a male enterprise. Women also participated in the development of this mystical representation of Islam in different ways. Despite the existence of scholarly studies on Sufism in medieval Anatolia, the role played by women in this period has generally been overlooked. Only recently have studies started to highlight the relevance that some of these Sufi ladies had in spreading Sufism in the Middle East. Accounts of women’s deeds are especially abundant in hagiographic literature produced in the seventh/thirteenth and eighth/fourteenth centuries. However, it has been generally downgraded as historically unreliable for consisting of biased ‘inside accounts’ of the lives of Sufi shaykhs and their followers. This article has a twofold goal: first, to investigate what information hagiographies provide about the role of women in medieval Anatolia; and second, to try to vindicate the option of using hagiographic literature as a relevant source of information in researching aspects of cultural history that cannot be found in other source materials.

In: Journal of Sufi Studies


This article focuses on MS Leiden Or. 95, which contains a version of the Ḥall mushkilāt al-Ishārāt by Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. 672/1273), copied apparently in 1272 CE. This article explores the paratextual evidence present in the manuscript in order to reconstruct the history of the book and investigate aspects of cultural life in Mongol and post-Mongol Baghdad. It is an attempt, based on manuscript evidence, to contribute to the broader discussion on the impact that the Mongol invasions had on the cultural life of the Middle East in general and the city of Baghdad in particular. The analysis of the colophon, ownership marks, reading certificates, and annotations in this codex offer a particular case study of aspects of production, distribution, and consumption of knowledge in Ilkhanid Baghdad.

In: Journal of Islamic Manuscripts
Continuity and Transformation in Ilkhanid Iran
The Mongols’ Middle East: Continuity and Transformation in Ilkhanid Iran offers a collection of academic articles that investigate different aspects of Mongol rule in 13th- and 14th-century Iran. Sometimes treated only as part of the larger Mongol Empire, the volume focuses on the Ilkhanate (1258-1335) with particular reference to its relations with its immediate neighbours. It is divided into four parts, looking at the establishment, the internal and external dynamics of the realm, and its end. The different chapters, covering several topics that have received little attention before, aim to contribute to a better understanding of Mongol rule in the Middle East and its role in the broader medieval Eurasian world and its links with China.

With contributions by: Reuven Amitai, Michal Biran, Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog, Bruno De Nicola, Florence Hodous, Boris James, Aptin Khanbaghi, Judith Kolbas, George Lane, Timothy May, Charles Melville, Esther Ravalde, Karin Rührdanz
In: The Mongols' Middle East
In: The Mongols' Middle East
In: The Mongols' Middle East