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In: Nematologica
In: Nematologica
In: Nematologica
In: Nematologica

Contemporary food policy often focuses on ‘downstream’ elements of the food system, particularly the roles and responsibilities of individual members of a consuming public. For example, to address the effects of food and beverage advertising on child health, in the absence of widespread agreement on the most appropriate form of collective action, policy debate has tended to revolve around moral reasoning about how children should behave and interact with the world around them. In this paper, we attempt to broaden this debate by sharing results from in-depth interviews (n=35) carried out as part of our Food Advertising to Children: Ethics for Policy study, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We will discuss how ‘food citizenship’ can be viewed not only in terms of consumption roles (e.g. children’s behaviour), but the expectations for participation embedded within policy actor roles (e.g. health professionals, ‘government’ broadly defined). Such framing is important for how diverse policy actors understand and incorporate citizenship into their practices. Whether health professionals are construed as only ‘program delivery agents’, for example, or active citizens, can affect their power to influence policy processes; it also conditions the range of policy options deemed suitable for public debate.

In: The ethics of consumption

Forest fragmentation increases forest edge relative to forest interior, with lower vegetation quality common for primates in edge zones. Because most primates live in human-modified tropical forests within 1 km of their edges, it is critical to understand how primates cope with edge effects. Few studies have investigated how primates inhabiting a fragment alter their behaviour across forest edge and interior zones. Here we investigate how anthropogenic edges affect the activity and spatial cohesion of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) at the La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), a Costa Rican forest fragment. We predicted the monkeys would spend greater proportions of their activity budget feeding and resting and a lower proportion travelling in edge compared to forest interior to compensate for lower resource availability in the edge. We also predicted that spatial cohesion would be lower in the edge to mitigate feeding competition. We collected data on activity and spatial cohesion (nearest neighbour distance; number of individuals within 5 m) in forest edge and interior zones via instantaneous sampling of focal animals. Contrary to predictions, the monkeys spent equal proportions of time feeding, resting and travelling in forest edge and interior. Similarly, there were no biologically meaningful differences in the number of individuals or the distance between nearest neighbours in the edge (1.0 individuals; 1.56 m) versus the interior (0.8 individuals; 1.73 m). Our results indicate that A. palliata at LSBRS do not adjust their activity or spatial cohesion patterns in response to anthropogenic edge effects, suggesting that the monkeys here exhibit less behavioural flexibility than A. palliata at some other sites. To develop effective primate conservation plans, it is therefore crucial to study primate species’ responses to fragmentation across their geographic range.

In: Folia Primatologica

In precision agriculture, most spatio-temporal analyses involve the analysis of time series of remotely-sensed images whose dates are expressed according to the Gregorian calendar. However, in the agronomic literature, it is commonly accepted that calendars based on a thermal index allow a better representation of the actual state of development of the plant. This paper aims to demonstrate that potential new information at the block scale can be revealed by adjusting a NDVI time series extracted from Sentinel 2 images using a site-specific thermal index. This is achieved by removing part of the inter-annual differences in the time-series that is due to variations in phenology by using a temperature-based time adjustment. To do so, the paper is based on an operational case study in viticulture exploring whether a link between NDVI profiles and the consistency over years of harvest quality parameters could be hypothesised at the block scale.

In: Precision agriculture '21

Abstract

Animal-borne video cameras equipped with depth and temperature sensors were deployed on 16 reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) in Raa Atoll, Maldives and 12 oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) in the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico. These deployments provided descriptive behavioural data that give vital context to existing biotelemetry data and enabled a comparison of the social dynamics between the two manta ray species. Overall, cruising was the most dominant daytime behaviour recorded for both species. For M. alfredi, cleaning was the second most common behaviour, followed by courtship and feeding. No courtship behaviour was recorded for M. birostris. Across M. alfredi and M. birostris deployments, individuals spent an average of 43 and 8% of recorded time interacting with conspecifics, respectively. Sociability was higher in M. alfredi than M. birostris, however the findings should be interpreted with caution beyond the two deployment populations and times. Crittercams captured multiple courtship events of M. alfredi at depths greater than recreational scuba diving limits and captured previously undocumented interspecific interactions with M. mobular. Crittercam deployments also recorded M. alfredi travelling in groups and hugging the contours of the ocean floor, possibly as a tactic to reduce predation risk and/or improve swimming efficiency, enforcing the importance of this novel technology as a valuable tool to gain new insight into the ecological drivers of habitat use by these species. Lastly, these quantitative and descriptive results provide context for future hypothesis-driven research questions using animal-borne video cameras for mobulid rays.

Open Access
In: Behaviour