Adolescent alienation is a symptom of problems in relations among the individual, school, community, and family. Based on a research conducted with a sample of 897 Tibetan adolescent students in Grades 7 to 12, this study reveals that over one third of subjects experience high levels of alienation. Questionnaire data and field work show possible sources of this alienation in contemporary rural Tibetan society in China, factors that may reduce alienation, and explanations for low levels of alienation among some students. The paper concludes with an argument for researchers and policy makers to pay greater attention to the issue of alienation among minority boarding school students.
The Laozi laughs at the joy of those who violate the Dao and praises the suffering of those who attain it, yet this does not mean that the political philosophy of the Laozi does not encompass a notion of happiness, a notion that is grounded in the “enjoyment of something together” (gong le 共樂) by the sage and the common people. The philosophical foundation of the Laozi’s view of happiness is its cosmology, of which there are two sequences: one is generation and the other is growth. With the influences of Wei/Jin-era metaphysics and Western philosophy, Chinese scholars used to overemphasize generation, tracing only the origin. But in the cosmology of the Laozi, both generation and growth are indispensable, and this is part of the reason why the Dao and the De are equally important in the Laozi. The happiness of the common people does not come from a psychological dependence on or attachment to certain form of domination, but from the full development of each individual’s initiative and action affected by Mysterious De.
Usually, people think that Gettier counter-examples challenged the traditional tripartite definition of knowledge and fundamentally changed the characteristic of the contemporary epistemology. This paper argues that regard for Gettier counter-examples is exaggerated, because (i) the JTB definition is neither an important nor a comprehensive one that covers all knowledge. Moreover, the significance of Gettier counter-examples is limited. (ii) The source of Gettier counter-examples lies in one arbitrary judgment, two mix-ups, three false assumptions, and a misunderstanding about the JTB definition.
Aristotle claims that a sensible substance is composed of form and matter, while he insists that it is a unity in a strict sense. So there is the question—in what sense can a composite thing be a unity? Aristotle’s key solution lies in his account of matter as potentiality and form as actuality. Many scholars are bewildered by his laconic solutions, and there are mainly two approaches undertaken in interpretations. One is called “projective”; the other is called “explanatory.” But neither interpretation is satisfying. The main tasks of this paper are to reexamine the problem and the two interpretations, then to argue that the composition of a sensible substance should be understood in light of its coming-to-be; that its unity refers to its being a functional unity.
The text investigates into the historical background of the formation of Guanzhong cultural center and its eastward transition since the Eastern Han Dynasty moved its capital to Luoyang. It further analyzes the complicated causes of the literary flourishing in such places as Runan, Yingchuan, Nanyang and its influences upon the contemporaneous literature development, so as to elucidate various reasons for the great different scholarship and literature between the North and the South in the Eastern Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. Among them one of the most important causes was that they had inherited different traditions.
Despite a growing body of literature on the study of the Western media's portrayal of China, little attention has been paid to the structures underlying the representation of China. This essay aims to address this issue through an in-depth analysis of a British television documentary series, Roads to Xanadu (1990). It focuses on dominant perspectives constructed in the series by analysing documentary narrative as a mode of realising discourse. The essay argues that underlying the representation is a technological view of society. Shifting between realpolitik industrialism and liberal democratic humanism, the series attempts to arrive at a unified and unifying version of 'progress' through a modernist discourse.
Students of modern Chinese history, and modern Shanghai history in particular, tend to view Shanghai as having been a lone islet during the Pacific War, when it was cut off from other parts of the world. This article, however, argues that Shanghai was still well connected to areas under the control of the Japanese throughout the war. Using the Sikh community in Shanghai as a case, it demonstrates how the Indian National Army used both a Japanese-initiated military highway and the long-existing Indian diasporic network in Southeast and East Asia to facilitate a certain kind of mobilization. It further sheds light on how the Sikhs in Shanghai were influenced by and responded to the Indian National Army’s endeavors.