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  • Author or Editor: Carlos Jurado x
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Abstract

What sound quality has led to exclude infrasound from sound in the conventional hearing range? We examined whether temporal segregation of pressure pulses is a distinctive property and evaluated this perceptual limit via an adaptive psychophysical procedure for pure tones and carriers of different envelopes. Further, to examine across-domain similarity and individual covariation of this limit, here called the critical segregation rate (CSR), it was also measured for various periodic visual and vibrotactile stimuli. Results showed that sequential auditory or vibrotactile stimuli separated by at least ~80‒90 ms (~11‒12-Hz repetition rates), will be perceived as perceptually segregated from one another. While this limit did not statistically differ between these two modalities, it was significantly lower than the ~150 ms necessary to perceptually segregate successive visual stimuli. For the three sensory modalities, stimulus periodicity was the main factor determining the CSR, which apparently reflects neural recovery times of the different sensory systems. Among all experimental conditions, significant within- and across-modality individual CSR correlations were observed, despite the visual CSR (mean: 6.8 Hz) being significantly lower than that of both other modalities. The auditory CSR was found to be significantly lower than the frequency above which sinusoids start to elicit a tonal quality (19 Hz; recently published for the same subjects). Returning to our initial question, the latter suggests that the cessation of tonal quality — not the segregation of pressure fluctuations — is the perceptual quality that has led to exclude infrasound (sound with frequencies < 20 Hz) from the conventional hearing range.

Open Access
In: Timing & Time Perception

The Hyalella species diversity in the high-altitude water bodies of the Andean Altiplano is addressed using mitochondrial cox1 sequences and implementing different molecular species delimitation criteria. We have recorded the presence of five major genetic lineages in the Altiplano, of which one seems to be exclusive to Lake Titicaca and nearby areas, whereas the rest occur also in other regions of South America. Eleven out of 36 South American entities diagnosed by molecular delimitation criteria in our study are likely endemic to the Titicaca and neighbouring water bodies. We have detected a remarkable disagreement between morphology and genetic data in the Titicacan Hyalella, with occurrence of several cases of the same morpho-species corresponding to several Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs), some even distantly related, and other instances where a particular MOTU is shared by a morphologically heterogeneous array of species, including species with body smooth and others with body heavily armoured. Species diversification and incongruence between morphological and molecular boundaries within this species assemblage may be associated to the sharp changes in hydrological conditions experienced by the water bodies of the Altiplano in the past, which included dramatic fluctuations in water level and salinity of Lake Titicaca. Such environmental shifts could have triggered rapid morphological changes and ecological differentiation within the Hyalella assemblage, followed by phenotypic convergence among the diverse lineages. Factors such as phenotypic plasticity, incomplete lineage sorting or admixture between divergent lineages might lie also at the root of the morphological-genetic incongruence described herein.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

Abstract

Lake Titicaca, in the High Andes of Perú and Bolivia, harbours the world’s third most speciose ancient-lake amphipod radiation on record. A minimum of nineteen species of Hyalella derived from at least five independent colonization episodes concentrate in this high altitude water body, although the actual species number present has not yet been established and could be much higher. Herein, we take advantage of the description of three new species (H. krolli, H. gonzalezi, and H. hirsuta) and the re-description of other two (H. solida and H. nefrens) to assess the feasibility of adopting a dna-based identification approach to resolve the magnitude of this highly speciose amphipod assemblage. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the evolutionary relationships among South American Hyalella cox1 haplotypes, including those of four out of the five species dealt with herein, shows a great disagreement between taxonomic units delimited under morphological and genetic data, hampering species identification exclusively based on cox1 dna barcode sequences.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

The molecular systematics of the subterranean amphipod genus Haploginglymus is addressed through the phylogenetic analysis of three DNA gene fragments (nuclear ribosomal 28S and protein- coding Histone 3, plus mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I). We take advantage of the description of a new species from southern Spain (Haploginglymus geos sp. nov.) to assess the singularity of this genus endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and the inclusion of the morphologically aberrant H. morenoi within Haploginglymus. Our results corroborate the monophyly of the family Niphargidae but shows Niphargus to be paraphyletic as it currently stands, with Haploginglymus appearing nested within it. A strongly supported sister-group relationship between niphargids and the (thalassoid) pseudoniphargids is recovered as well, but we propose the Niphargidae should continue to be considered as a primary limnic group for biogeographic purposes despite its presumed marine derivation. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies that suggest the family Niphargidae originated in the late Cretaceous in the NE Atlantic, from where it eventually expanded across continental Europe.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

The presence of the green and Kemp’s ridley turtles is rare at Atlantic and Mediterranean Spanish waters, but the records have increased during the last decades. We reported a new set of records and reviewed all the historical observations of these species. The analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment of the newest records provided insights about the origin of the individuals. The Kemp’s ridley turtles arrived from the western Atlantic nesting beaches, although the discovering of a new haplotype suggested the existence of an unknown or low sampled nesting area of origin. Furthermore, the genetic analysis was crucial for the species identification in one specimen, hence recommending the use of genetic markers to confirm the presence of a rare species. All green turtles presented haplotypes exclusive from Atlantic nesting beaches and concentrated in the African populations. Thus, the closest eastern Mediterranean nesting areas were discarded as source populations and a new migration route for this species was described.

Full Access
In: Amphibia-Reptilia