Author: Carola Sachse

Abstract

Cyrus Eaton was called the “last tycoon” of the twentieth century. His financial support was vital to the initial development of the Pugwash Conferences. But in 1960, leading American Pugwashites moved to distance themselves publicly from Eaton’s political and philanthropic activities, which earned him the Lenin Peace Prize. More than a simple reflection of McCarthyism, the dispute between Eaton and the American Pugwash group was rooted in strategic differences – in styles of communication and political engagement. The avowed “capitalist” put a lot of effort into showcasing his friendship with Khrushchev and advocated dialogue with the USSR. By contrast, the scientists wanted to establish a discreet channel for second track diplomacy as part of their efforts to transcend the political and ideological differences that underpinned the superpower rivalry and were driving the nuclear arms race. Analyzing the conflict between Eaton, the leading American Pugwashites and the Continuing Committee in London, this paper reconstructs how the PCSWA developed their self-understanding as a science based “communication channel” across the blocs.

In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in the Early Cold War
From 1957 onwards, the "Pugwash Conferences" brought together elite scientists from across ideological and political divides to work towards disarmament. Through a series of national case studies - Austria, China, Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany, the US and USSR – this volume offers a critical reassessment of the development and work of “Pugwash” nationally, internationally, and as a transnational forum for Track II diplomacy. This major new collection reveals the difficulties that Pugwash scientists encountered as they sought to reach across the blocs, create a channel for East-West dialogue and realize the project’s founding aim of influencing state actors. Uniquely, the book affords a sense of the contingent and contested process by which the network-like organization took shape around the conferences.

Contributors are Gordon Barrett, Matthew Evangelista, Silke Fengler, Alison Kraft, Fabian Lüscher, Doubravka Olšáková, Geoffrey Roberts, Paul Rubinson, and Carola Sachse.
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy
In: Science, (Anti-)Communism and Diplomacy